Portrait of Andrew Jackson (nicknamed “Indian Killer”),
featured on US $20 bill since 1928

● white supremacist extremist
● strong supporter of slavery of black (African-origin) people, and himself a slaveholder
● accountable for genocide and ethnic cleansing against Indigenous Peoples of territory under present-day jurisdiction of 48-state contiguous United States 

● as Tennessee Militia Major General (1802-1814), led genocidal war of conquest against the Muscogee Nation (1813-1814) [described in this article]
● led US invasion and conquest of territory under present-day jurisdiction of US state of Florida
● as 7th US President (1829-1837), signed Indian Removal Act on 28 May 1830, which made the forced relocation of Indigenous Peoples to US-designated “reservations” official US policy and led to the deaths of many thousands of Indigenous men, women, and children

● founder of US Democratic Party in 1828

By: Marc Immanuel

Published on: 22 March 2017
Last updated on: 11 May 2018


3 November 1813 – 27 March 1814
Territory under present-day occupation of US states of Tennessee, Alabama

Description: US military invasion of mass destruction and extermination for the conquest of the territory under the legal jurisdiction of the Muscogee Nation (referred to as the Creek Confederacy by the US Government).

The invasion was led by Tennessee Militia Major General (1802-1814) Andrew Jackson (nicknamed “Indian Killer” by Indigenous Peoples). Following major genocidal massacres at Talluschatchee, Hillabee, Autossee, and Tohopeka, the destruction of several villages, and the  taking away of hundreds of women and children as prisoners, the Treaty of Fort Jackson was signed on 9 August 1814.

In order to end the US mass destruction and extermination against their people, a delegation of Muscogee chiefs submitted to Jackson’s demands that the Muscogee Nation surrender all resistance and transfer about 23 million acres (93,000 km2) of the Muscogee homeland to the US Government. Andrew Jackson became a US national hero and later founded the US Democratic Party (founded 1828) and was elected to the US presidency (1829-1837).

3 November 1813
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Tennessee
Massacre death toll: Over 200 men, women, children
US militia death toll: 5 militiamen

About 900 US militiamen mounted on horses, led by Tennessee Militia Brigadier General John R. Coffee, under orders from Major General Andrew Jackson, rode to the Muscogee village of Tallushatchee, killed over 200 men, women, and children, and set the village on fire.

Men and even women stood at the doors of their homes, trying to prevent the killing of their families and the destruction of their village.

One of the militiamen who had participated, David Crockett, years later recalled in his memoirs: “We now shot them down like dogs.” He described how he  participated in burning down a house where  approximately 50 Muscogee men and their families had taken refuge. [“Narrative of the Life of David Crocket” (section 88-89)]

Another militiamen who had participated, Richard Keith Call, years later described the carnage he  had seen  there the next morning: We found as many as eight or ten  dead bodies in a single cabin, sometimes the dead mother clasped the dead child to her breast, and… – some of the cabins had taken fire, and half consumed human bodies were seen  amidst the smoking ruins.” [quotesource1, quotesource2 (Wikipedia article, section “Battle”]

Nearly 100 villagers (mostly women and children) were taken prisoner.

[Sources: 1, 2]

18 November 1813
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Alabama
Massacre death toll: Over 65 men, women, children
US militia death toll: 0

Following the Tallushatchee Massacre (3 November) and the Battle of Talladega (9 November, in which over 300 Muscogee resistance fighters were killed), the Muscogee of the nearby Hillabee villages began peace negotiations with Major General Andrew Jackson.

However, Tennessee Militia Major General (1813-1814) John A. Cocke gave orders to Brigadier General James White to destroy the Hillabee villages. After destroying some of the smaller Hillabee villages, burning over 100 houses, and capturing several Hillabees, White’s forces of about 1,000 fully-armed  men arrived to the main Hillabee village on the morning of 18 November.

The leaders of the village thought the village had amnesty due to a peace deal in process with Jackson, and many Hillabee men went out with their women and children to greet the oncoming troops. Then the forces under General White began to massacre the villagers.

About 65 Muscogee men and an unaccounted number of women and children were killed, and the village was burned down. Nearly 250 villagers were taken prisoner.

General White said, “We lost not one drop of blood in accomplishing this enterprise.”
(source, pg 266)

[Sources: 1, (pgs 69-70), 2,  3]

29 November 1813
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Alabama
Massacre death toll: Over 200 (men)
US militia and allied Indig. warrior death toll: 11 militiamen/warriors

Nearly 1,000 Georgia militiamen led by Georgia Militia Brigadier General (1806-1815) John Floyd, plus approximately 450 allied Indigenous warriors led by corrupt Scottish-Muscogee collaborator William McIntosh,  launched a surprise attack on the large Muscogee town of Autossee (by the Tallapoosa River, in territory under present-day local jurisdiction of Macon County).

The town’s women, children, elderly, and African-origin persons held as slaves were evacuated before the invaders arrived. The Muscogee men who remained to defend the town were shot, stabbed by bayonets, bombarded with volleys of fire, and burned to death. The whole town was set on fire, burning about 400 houses, and killing over 200 men.

[Sources: 1 , 2 (pg 51), 3 (pg 125)]

27 March 1814
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Alabama
Massacre death toll: Over 800
(mostly men, and an unaccounted number of women and children)
US forces death toll:
Between 50 to 70 US militiamen and allied Indig. warriors killed in action
(plus a number of wounded in action who died of their wounds afterwards)

A heavily-armed US military force of approximately 3,300 men (including about 600 allied Indigenous – most Cherokee – warriors), led by Andrew Jackson, attacked a fortification called “Tohopeka”, where nearly 1,500 Muscogee men, women, and children who had abandoned the nearby Muscogee villages were taking refuge. First, the US forces pounded the Muscogee fortification for about two hours with an artillery barrage from two small canons.

In the battle and massacre which followed, most of the Muscogee men (whether resisting or trying to escape) were exterminated. Tennessee Militia General John R. Coffee estimated that 250 to 300 Muscogees were shot in the “Tallapoossa River” while trying to escape.

The encampment inside the fortification was burned down. Approximately 300 women and children were taken prisoner. After the massacre, Jackson supervised the mutilation of the Muscogee corpses on the ground – which included cutting off the tips of the noses of 557 corpses to record the number of dead. [source1 (pg 128), source2 (pg 22-24)]

[Sources: Wikipedia article,
book “The Ghosts of Horseshoe Bend…“, J. S. Weiss, Ch. 2 (pgs 10-25)]



Sold Down the River: Slavery in the Lower Chattohoochee Valley of Alabama and Georgia“,
book (historical), by Anthony Gene Carey (Historic Chattahoochee Commission)
University of Alabama Press, 31 Aug. 2011, Ch 1 (pgs 14-41)
Beautiful War: Studies in a Dreadful Fascination”,
book (historical), by Philip D. Beidler,
University of Alabama Press, 2016, Chapter 2 (pgs 26-35)
Creek Indian History:… (1788-1845)” ,
book (historical), by George Stiggins, University of Alabama Press, 22 Jan. 2003
Brief History of Tennessee in the War of 1812“,
Tennessee Secretary of State website, article (historical),
by Tom Kanon (Tennessee State Library and Archives), 2017
American Indians Oppose Glorification of Andrew Jackson“,
People’s World, article (historical), by Albert Bender, 26 January 2015
Indian Killer Jackson Deserves Top Spot on List of Worst Presidents“,
Indian Country Today, article (historical),
by Galey Courey Toensing (author), 20 February 2017
Battle of Tallushatchee” (Tallushatchee Massacre),
Wikipedia, volunteer-written encyclopedia, article (historical)
Hillabee Massacre (Nov. 18)“.
Native American Heritage Month, article (historical), 19 November 2016
Biography and History of the Indians of North America“,
book (historical), by Samuel Gardner Drake, Antiquarian Institute, 1837,
Chapter 6: “Battles of Autossee and Tohopeka” (pg 51)
“Batttle of Horsheshoe Bend (1814)” (Tohopeka Massacre),
Wikipedia, volunteer-written encyclopedia, article
The Ghosts of Horseshoe Bend: Myth, Memory, and the Making of a National Battlefield“,
book (historical), by J. S. Weiss, Arizona State University, May 2014


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