Above: A painting by Cal Peters, depicting the Bad Axe Massacre (2 August 1832).

A LIST OF OVER 100 GENOCIDAL MASSACRES BY THE UNITED STATES
AGAINST INDIGENOUS (NATIVE) PEOPLES OF THE WESTERN CONTINENT *:
From the Gnadenhutten Massacre to the Wounded Knee Massacre

[* specifically, against Indigenous (Native) Peoples of the collective territory under present-day occupation of the 48 contiguous US states, occupied by the United States of America (USA, US) during the nearly 150-year period of the USA’s genocidal conquest (1776-1924)]

The report of an independent research

By: Marc Immanuel

Originally published on: 13 April 2017
(Gregorian Calendar)

Last updated on: 17 May 2018

Basic resources for initial research:

List of ‘Indian Massacres’”, Wikipedia, volunteer-written encyclopedia
Massacres of Native Americans”, Wikipedia, volunteer-written encyclopedia

* Note regarding terms:

The terms “(American) Indian” and “Native American”, appearing in the previous quoted references, have been in the past, and sometimes continue to be, used in reference or relation to Indigenous (Native) Peoples of the Western Continent.

This report refers to that major human subgroup of the human species as the “Indigenous Peoples of the Western Continent”.

The term “Western Continent’‘ is defined in this report as the Continent of the Western Hemisphere — the geological Continent named by European colonialist authorities America or “the Americas”, consisting of the geological subcontinents named “North America” and “South America”.

The term “Native” (capitalized) may be used interchangeably with the term “Indigenous”. The terms Indigenous Peoples, ”Native Peoples, and First Peoples (implying, of the Western Continent) may be used interchangeably.

Definition of ‘massacre’: This report defines ‘massacre’ in accordance to the definition provided by genocide scholar Benjamin Madley, as: the “intentional killing of five or more disarmed combatants or largely unarmed noncombatants, including women, children, and prisoners, whether in the context of a battle or otherwise”. (source)

INTRODUCTION

Over 100 Years of Sustained Physical Genocide by the United States
against Indigenous Peoples of the Western Continent

The violent part – or physical genocide’ [UN/ICC genocide criteria (a)-(b)-(c)] — of the US genocide against Indigenous Peoples of the Western Continent consisted of continuous massacres of men, women, and children and destruction of Indigenous encampments/villages/towns and means of sustenance, in combination with forced relocations to US-designated ”reservations”, for over 100 years (1776-1890).

That physical genocide was perpetrated by US federal, state, and county authorities and armed forces and by US citizen death squads (killing squads) with US federal and state support during the period of the US conquest of the portion of the Western Continent under present-day occupation of the 48-state contiguous United States.

SOME FACTS REGARDING THE FOLLOWING LISTED MASSACRES AGAINST INDIGENOUS PEOPLES
(Based on an in-depth independent research by the author)

● This List is a Partial List:

The following list is a partial list of the hundreds of specific US genocidal massacres against Indigenous Peoples of the collective territory under present-day occupation of the 48-state contiguous United States during the nearly 150-year period between the founding of the United States (1776) and the final end of the US war of conquest (1924).

.                         
● Hundreds of Thousands of Indigenous Men, Women, and Children Died in the US Genocide:

There were hundreds of thousands of Indigenous men, women, and children upon whom death or serious bodily harm became inflicted (by means of direct violence and/or indirectly by starvation, malnutrition, exhaustion, and/or disease) during the aforementioned period (1776-1924) in the aforementioned collective territory, as a consequence of the US Government’s war, extermination, forced relocation, and enslavement policies. [source, pg 49]

● The Near Extermination of the Indigenous Peoples of the Collective US-Occupied Territory by 1900:

The estimates of historical population numbers of Indigenous Peoples of the Western Continent vary among historians.

According to scholar of the Indigenous holocaust, Russell Thornton (author of “American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History Since 1492”):

During the about 250-year European (primarily Spanish and British) colonialist physical genocide prior to the foundation of the USA (1776), the Indigenous population of the collective territory under present-day occupation of the 48-state contiguous United States became reduced from over 5 million people to less than 1 million people. [source, pgs 32, 43]. Between 1776 and the 1890s, in about 120 more years of colonialist physical genocide (US genocide), the Indigenous population became further reduced — from nearly 1 million people in 1776 to about 250,000 people (approaching extinction) in the 1890s. [source, pgs 43]

.                                                                                                    ● The Pattern —

.                                   Indiscriminate Killing, Destruction of Villages, Elimination of Food Sources, Forced Removal:

In most of the following listed massacres, the whole population  (men, women, children) of encampments/villages/towns was indiscriminately targeted [UN/ICC genocide criteria (a)-(b)]. Often, dead bodies were mutilated. Usually, the encampments/villages/towns, the people’s shelters, and the people’s food sources were destroyed  [UN/ICC genocide criterion (c)].  When captives were taken,  they were often imprisoned, abused, enslaved or sold into slavery, and/or forcibly relocated to “reservations [ICC crimes against humanity].

● US Perpetrator Death Tolls in the Following Listed Massacres — Minimal or Zero:

In all of the massacres listed below, the US army, militia, death squad, and/or citizen death toll was minimal or zero. The Indigenous communities did not have the military capacity to defend themselves against heavily armed US army cavalry, militia, and death squads launching genocidal assaults against them.

● Not A Single Criminal Conviction for Any of the Perpetrators of the Following Listed Massacres:

For all of the massacres listed below, no US political official, military official, soldier, militiaman, or civilian accountable ever received any criminal conviction. Instead, many of the US genocidal murderers were hailed as “heros”, and many continue to be honored as “heros” to the present day as of 2018. Many of the US genocidal leaders rose to the highest US federal, state, and/or county political and/or military offices.

An Inspiration to Adolph Hitler: 

National Socialist (Nazi) Germany’s dictator (1933-1945) Adolph Hitler studied and was inspired by the history of US policy toward Indigenous Peoples. The 19th century US holocaust against Indigenous Peoples in the territory under present-day occupation of the 48-state contiguous United States helped inspire the 20th century Nazi holocaust against the Jewish People in the region of Europe.
[sources:  1, 2, 3, 4]

..

One Measure of Judgment for All

There were also, during the period of the US physical genocide (1776-1890), genocidal killings and massacres committed by Indigenous militants in the Indigenous militant resistance against US colonialist conquest. [“List of ‘Indian Massacres”] Proportionally, those genocidal killings and massacres were much lesser in frequency and in average magnitude of destructiveness than those of the US armed forces and death squads.

NEVER  does any “intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial, or religious group, as such” [genocidal intent, UN/ICC genocide], or any act motivated by such intent [act of genocide, UN/ICC genocide, acts (a), (b), (c), (d), or (e)], have any justification.
By one and the same measure of judgment, every individual bearing the inalienable capacity of free will bears also the inalienable accountability for one’s use of that will.

..

UN/ICC Physical Genocide Definition

any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part,
a national, ethnical, racial, or religious group, as such:

(a) Killing members of the group
(b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group
(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part

______________________________________________________________

MASSACRES

(here named mostly according to names
by which these massacres have become known to the world)

..

I. EASTERN U.S. HOLOCAUST MASSACRES

1776-1840
Territory east of the Mississippi River

[holocaust:
“destruction or slaughter on a mass scale” (Oxford Dictionaries)]




GNADENHUTTEN MASSACRE
(a.k.a. MORAVIAN MASSACRE)
[Entry 1]

8 March 1782
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Ohio

Massacre death toll: Approx. 96 (men, women, children)
US militia death toll: 0

A painting depicting a scene in one of the two “killing houses” in the Gnadenhutten Massacre (8 March 1782).

Description:
[more: “Gnadenhutten Massacre“]

During the US Revolutionary War (1775-1783), on 8 March 1782, a Pennsylvania Militia force of approximately 160 militiamen in an expedition ordered by Washington County Lieutenant (top county militia authority) James Marshel and led by Washington County Militia Lieutenant Colonel David Williamson, executed nearly 100 innocent captive Indigenous civilians (mostly of Lenape ethnicity). The massacred villagers included approximately 35 children (including approximately 12 infants).

Inside two “killing houses” (one for the men and one for the women and children), the militia murdered the captives one by one — by bashing their heads with a big mallet (big wooden hammer) [see painting] and scalping their heads with hatchets. The militia then burned down the people’s villages (including the piles of bodies) and rode back to Washington County, Pennsylvania-jurisdiction territory, with the plunder and the people’s scalps.

In May 1782, US political and military authorities made a brief inquiry into the “Gnadenhutten affair”, then suppressed the official evidence and never held anyone accountable. Lieutenant Marshel and Colonel Williamson retained their positions of county authority and, following the Revolution, were both elected to the office of Sheriff (top executive authority) of Washington County, Pennsylvania.

Info resources: “… Massacres”, ”Gnadenhutten Massacre”, Wikipedia 
More sources: source1, source2 (pgs 128-132), source3 (pgs 147-170)




GREAT CHEROKEE CHILDREN MASSACRE
(a.k.a. YWAHOO FALLS MASSACRE)
[Entry 2]

August or autumn, 1810
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Kentucky

Massacre death toll: Over 100 (men, women, children)
US militia death toll: 0 (in this specific attack)

.                                                                                                    Description:

Over 100 Cherokee women and children were brutally killed while waiting to escape to safety, along with many other Cherokee leaders, by a US death squad led by Hiram (“Big Tooth”) Gregory, operating under the authority of John Sevier [1st Governor of Tennessee (1803-1809), member of US Congress (1811-1815)]. [source (pgs 92-96)]

Info resource: “Massacre at Ywahoo Falls”, Wikipedia

[Note: Doubt has been expressed as to whether this massacre ever actually occurred. More research is required to verify the facts.]

—————————————————————————–

MUSCOGEE MASSACRES OF 1813-1814
(a.k.a. CREEK MASSACRES OF 1813-1814)

3 November 1813 – 27 March 1814
Territory under present-day occupation of US states of Tennessee, Alabama

Description:
[more:  Muscogee Massacres..]

US military invasion of mass destruction and extermination for the conquest of the territory under the legal jurisdiction of the Muscogee Nation (referred to as the Creek Confederacy by the US Government). The invasion was led by Tennessee Militia Major General (1802-1814) Andrew Jackson (nicknamed “Indian Killer” by Indigenous Peoples).

Following major genocidal massacres at Talluschatchee, Hillabee, Autossee, and Tohopeka, the destruction of several villages, and the taking away of hundreds of women and children as prisoners, the Treaty of Fort Jackson was signed on 9 August 1814.

In order to end the US mass destruction and extermination against their people, a delegation of Muscogee chiefs submitted to Jackson’s demands that the Muscogee Nation surrender all resistance and transfer about 23 million acres (93,000 km2) of the Muscogee homeland to the US Government. Jackson became a US national hero and later founded the US Democratic Party (founded 1828) and was elected to the US presidency (1829-1837).

Sources: listed in Muscogee Massacres…

Major Genocidal Massacres in the Muscogee Massacres of 1813-1814


TALLUSCHATCHEE MASSACRE
[Entry 3]

3 November 1813
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Tennessee

Massacre death toll: Over 200 (men, women, children)
US militia death toll: 5

.                                                                                                 Description:
                                                                               [more:  Muscogee Massacres..]

“900 Tennessee troops under General John R. Coffee, and including David Crockett, attacked an unsuspecting Muscogee [a.k.a. Creek (exonym)] town. About 186-200 Muscogee warriors were killed, and an unknown number of women and children were killed, some burned in their houses.” [“… Massacres”]

An eyewitness account (of the carnage witnessed the next morning): “We found as many as eight or ten dead bodies in a single cabin, sometimes the dead mother clasped the dead child to her breast, and… – some of the cabins had taken fire, and half consumed human bodies were seen amidst the smoking ruins.” — Richard Keith Call (who had been a US militiaman at the massacre)
[source1, source2 (Wikipedia article, section “Battle”)]


HILLABEE MASSACRE
[Entry 4]

18 November 1813
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Alabama

Massacre death toll: Over 65 (men, women, children)
US militia death toll: 0

Description:
[more:  Muscogee Massacres..]

“Tennessee troops under General James White launched a dawn attack on an unsuspecting Muscogee [a.k.a. Creek (exonym)] town (the village leaders were engaged in peace negotiations with General Andrew Jackson). About 65 Muscogee Indigenous people were shot or bayoneted.” [“…Massacres”]

“We lost not one drop of blood in accomplishing this enterprise.”
— Tennessee Militia Brigadier General James White (source, pg 266)


AUTOSSEE MASSACRE
[Entry 5]

29 November 1813
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Alabama

Massacre death toll: Over 200 (men)
US militia death toll: 11

Description:
[more:  Muscogee Massacres..]

Nearly 1,000 Georgia militiamen led by Georgia Militia Brigadier General (1806-1815) John Floyd plus approximately 450 allied Indigenous warriors led by corrupt Scottish-Muscogee collaborator William McIntosh launched a surprise attack on the large Muscogee town of Autossee (by the Tallapoosa River, in territory under present-day local jurisdiction of Macon County).

The town’s women, children, elderly, and African-origin persons held as slaves were evacuated before the invaders arrived. The Muscogee men who remained to defend the town were shot, stabbed by bayonets, bombarded with volleys of fire, and burned to death. The whole town was set on fire, burning about 400 houses, and killing over 200 men.

Info resource: ”Battle of Autossee”, Wikipedia
More sources: source1 , source2 (pg 51), source3 (pg 125)


TOHOPEKA MASSACRE
(a.k.a. BATTLE OF TOHOPEKA,
BATTLE OF HORSESHOE BEND)
[Entry 6]

27 March 1814
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Alabama

Massacre death toll: Over 800 (mostly men, plus women, children)
[possibly the massacre having the highest death toll]
(The Tohopeka Massacre is usually referred to as a “battle”,

but it was, even more so, a genocidal massacre.)

US forces death toll: Approx. 70

Description:
[more:  Muscogee Massacres…]

US forces under the command of Tennessee Militia Major General Andrew Jackson attacked a Muscogee fortification where nearly 1,500 Muscogees were taking refuge.

Jackson’s forces killed over 800 Muscogees (including between 250 and 300 as they tried to escape across a river) — mostly men, and an unaccounted number of women and children. After the massacre, Jackson supervised the mutilation of the Muscogee corpses on the ground – which included cutting off the tips of the noses of 557 corpses to record the number of dead. [source1 (pg 128), source2 (pg 22-24)]

[Info resource: ”Battle of Horseshoe Bend”, Wikipedia 
More info: “Ghosts of Horseshoe Bend…” (J. S. Weiss, pg 10-25)]

—————————————————————————–

…..


AUMUCCULLE MASSACRE
(a.k.a. CHEHAW MASSACRE)
[Entry 7]

23 April 1818
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Georgia

Massacre death toll: Approx. 50 (men, women, children)
US militia death toll: 0

  Description:
[more: Aumuculle Massacre]

A Georgia militia force of approximately 270 militiamen led by Captain Obed Wright, under orders by 29th Governor of Georgia (1817-1819) William Rabun to lead a punitive expedition, attacked the unsuspecting peaceful Chiaha Muscogee village Aumucculle (Au-muc-cul-le), setting it on fire, and killing approximately 50 people (mostly women, children, and elderly).

The elderly chief of the village ran outside his house carrying a stick with a white flag (a symbol of surrender). He was immediately shot down. “The militia shot or trampled any living thing on the village’s streets. They then set fire to all the houses, where the women, children, and elderly were hiding. They laughed as the helpless civilians screamed in agony.” [“The Secret History of the Chehaw Massacre”]

According to Pat Atwater: His great-great grandfather was a Georgia Militia member at the massacre who witnessed fellow militiamen bashing babies and little children’s heads against trees. [The murder of Indigenous infants and very young children by bashing their heads against any hard surfaces was a genocidal practice US soldiers/militiamen during the 19th century called “braining”. (source)]

Sources: listed in “Aumucculle Massacre




BAD AXE MASSACRE
[Entry 8]

2 August 1832
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Wisconsin

Massacre death toll: Approx. 300 (men, women, children)
US soldier/militia death toll: 5

A painting by Cal Peters, depicting the Bad Axe Massacre (2 August 1832).

Description:
[more: Bad Axe Massacre]

US Army forces led by US Army Brigadier General Henry Atkinson, US Army Brigadier General Alexander Posey, and US Army Major Henry Dodge, and a US state of Illinois militia force led by Illinois Militia officer Milton Alexander, massacred a band of Sauk and Meskwaki [a.k.a. Fox (exonym)] people led by Sauk leader and warrior Black Hawk, near present-day Victory, territory under present-day occupation of US state of Wisconsin.

Black Hawk and his warriors had decided to not submit to, but to resist, the US Government policy of forced relocation of Indigenous Peoples [codified into federal law in 1830 through the Indian Removal Act, signed on 28 May 1830 by 7th US President (1829-1837) Andrew Jackson (nicknamed “Indian Killer” by Indigenous Peoples)].

The US forces indiscriminately massacred most of the approximately 400 Indigenous people there, by the “Bad Axe River”. Most of the men, women, and children who tried to swim or canoe across the river were shot down or drowned. The US soldiers scalped most of the dead bodies (taking their scalps).

[“…Massacres”, Sources: listed in Bad Axe Massacre]

—————————————————————————–

II. TEXAS HOLOCAUST MASSACRES

1823-1875
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Texas

[holocaust:
“destruction or slaughter on a mass scale” (Oxford Dictionaries)]

Description:
[more: Texas Holocaust]

In the early 1820s, US colonialist leader and land entrepreneur Stephen F. Austin (known as the “Father of Texas”, from whose name the present capital of the US state of Texas,  Austin, is named) initiated the US colonization of the Mexican state of Tejas [US, Texas]. Simultaneously, he initiated the Texas Holocaust (1823-1875) against Indigenous Peoples of the region. Austin had connections with the US Government and was associated with US Freemasonry and the US ruling class. Austin paved the way for the formal US annexation of Texas in 1845 and final US conquest of Texas from Mexico following the US-Mexican War (1846-1848).

[Sources: listed in Texas Holocaust]

The Auia Genocide
(a.k.a. The Karankawa
Genocide)

(1823 – extinction of Auia by 1860):

[The US colonialist extermination of the Auia People (endonym)
— designated by European-origin colonists as the Karankawa
(the Karankawa People) (exonym)]

In 1823, the killing of two US settlers by some Auia tribesmen became a pretext for the initiation of a US colonialist genocidal war of conquest against the Indigenous Peoples of the territory which became known as ”Texas”.

SKULL CREEK MASSACRE [Entry 9] (1823): A group of US colonial militiamen attacked an Auia village camp near “Skull Creek”, killing approximately 20 tribal members. The militiamen plundered the village and scalped the bodies of the dead (taking their scalps). [Auia source1 (pg 128)]

That year (1823), US colonialist leader Stephen F. Austin (the ”Father of Texas”) authorized the formation of a US colonial Texas militia and granted wide powers to the militia commander to “make war against the Karankawas [Auia]… according to his discretion”. (Auia source1, pg 130) Austin planned the extermination and forced removal of the Auia People so that he would be able to implement his mass US colonization plan.

In September 1825, Austin issued an official genocidal order against the Indigenous Peoples of the region, primarily against the Auia.  Austin instructed the settler militias under his command to “pursue and kill all those ‘Indians’ [Indigenous (Native) people] wherever they are found [east of the ‘Guadelupe River’]…” [Auia source1 (pg 131)]

Many genocidal massacres followed during the Auia Genocide (1823 – extinction of Auia by 1860). That specific US genocide [criteria (a), (b), (c)], initiated under the command of the ”Father of Texas”, Stephen Austin, brought the Auia ethnic group to complete extinction by 1860. [Auia source3]

Sources (for Auia Genocide):
Auia Source 1: ”From Dominance to Disappearance: The Indians of Texas and the Near Southwest, 1786-1859”,
book, by Foster Todd Smith, University of Nebraska Press, 2005, Chapter 5 (“Destruction”)
Auia Source 2: ”Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur”,
book, by Ben Kiernan, Yale University Press, 2007, “Genocide in the United States”, section: ”Extermination in Texas”
Auia Source 3: “Stephen Austin”, blog article, by Shannon Selin, 2013-2018

Some Κnown Μassacres Αmong Μany in the Texas Holocaust


COCO MASSACRE AT COLORADO RIVER, OF 1826
(called by US Texas settlers, “DRESSING POINT MASSACRE”)
[Entry 10]

Early 1826
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Texas

Massacre death toll: Approx. 50 (men, women, children)
US militia death toll: 0 or minimal

Description:
[more: Texas Holocaust]

The Coco Massacre at Colorado River, of 1826:

One of the many massacres in the Texas Holocaust was the Coco Massacre at Colorado River, of 1826. That massacre occurred soon following the killing of members of two Anglo-Texan settler families in an attack by Indigenous persons.

A Texas settler militia force of about 60 armed men led by Captain Aylett C. Buckner  exterminated a whole band (community) of the Coco tribe of the Auia.

It cannot be independently verified exactly how many people were killed. A death toll of between 40 and 50 was reported.

The people were driven into the water, and the Texas militia indiscriminately shot and killed men, women, and children as they tried to swim across the river and climb the steep bank on the other side. The whole band was exterminated.

An eyewitness said the river was literally red with blood. [Auia source2 (pg 337)]

Info resources: “… Massacres”, ”Dressing Point Massacre”, Wikipedia
More sources: Auia source1 (pg 131), Auia source2 (pg 337)


COMANCHE MASSACRE AT COLORADO RIVER, OF 1840
(a.k.a. COLORADO RIVER MASSACRE)
[Entry 11]

21 October 1840
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Texas

Massacre death toll: At least 140 (men, women, children)
US militia death toll: 0

Description:
[more: Texas Holocaust]

“Texas Volunteer Rangers under Colonel John H. Moore massacred [at least] 140 Comanches (men, women, and children) in their village on the Colorado River and captured 35 others (mostly small children).” [“… Massacres”]

As the Comanches came out of their tepees, many were gunned down at point-blank range. As men, women, and children tried to swim across the river, Moore ordered his troops to shoot them in the back. [source]

Moore’s eyewitness account: “The bodies of [Indigenous] men, women, and children were to be seen on every hand wounded, dying, and dead.” — Colonel John H. Moore [source]


COUNCIL HOUSE MASSACRE
[Entry 12]

19 March 1840
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Texas

Massacre death toll: Approx. 35 (men, women, children)
US death toll: 7

Description:

“The 12 leaders of a Comanche delegation (65 people including 35 women and  children) were shot in San Antonio, Texas, while trying to escape the local jail. 23 others including 5 women and children were killed in or around the city.” [“… Massacres”]

Info resource: ”Council House Fight”, Wikipedia


BRAZOS RIVER MASSACRE
[Entry 13]

April 1848
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Texas

Massacre death toll: Approx. 26 (men and boys)
US militia death toll: 0 or minimal

Description:

“A hunting party of 26 friendly Wichita and Caddo Indigenous people was massacred by Texas Rangers under Captain Samuel Highsmith, in a valley south of Brazos River. 25 men and boys were killed, and only one child managed to escape.” [“… Massacres”]


HYNES BAY MASSACRE
[Entry 14]

Autumn 1852
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Texas 

Massacre death toll: Approx. 50 (men, women, children)
US militia death toll: 0

.                                                                                               Description:

Approximately 30 Texas militiamen led by John Hynes attacked, without warning, a village of approximately 50 Aiua [a.k.a. Karankawa (exonym)], killing most of the people. [“… Massacres”]


PEASE RIVER MASSACRE
[Entry 15]

18 December 1860
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Texas 

Massacre death toll: Unaccounted (mostly women and children)
US militia death toll: 0

Description:

“Texas Rangers under Captain Lawrence Sullivan (“Sul”) Ross attacked a Comanche village in Foard County, Texas, killing indiscriminately a ‘considerable number’ of Indigenous people. ” [“…Massacres”]

Almost all the people of the village, mostly women and children, were mass murdered by the Texas Rangers.

In an interview, Hiram B. Rogers, a Ranger who joined the Ross command in October 1860, said, “I was in the Pease River fight, but I am not very proud of it. That was not a battle at all, but just a killing of ‘squaws’ [slang derogatory term referring to Indigenous women].” [source]

Info resource: ”Battle of Pease River”, Wikipedia

—————————————————————————-

III. CALIFORNIA HOLOCAUST MASSACRES

1846-1875
Territory under present-day occupation of the US state of California

Distribution of Indigenous Peoples of the territory which became referred to by the European Peoples as “California” — at the time when the United States invaded the territory and began to perpetrate the California Holocaust (1846-1873). By 1900, the Indigenous population of the territory had decreased to about 10% of its pre-US occupation population. (Map by Encyclopedia Britannica)

Description:

How the USA Conquered Much of US-Claimed Territory from the State of Mexico

On 13 May 1846, the US Government declared war on the State of Mexico, initiating the US-Mexican War (1846-1848). The US Government thereafter ordered the US Military to invade and occupy the territory then claimed and occupied by Mexico. At the time, the northern half of that territory included territory under present-day occupation of the US states of Texas, Colorado, Wyoming, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and California.

More information on that subject:
How the USA Conquered Much of US-Claimed Territory from the State of Mexico

The prime purpose of the US invasion was the conquest the whole of this northern half of the territory under the claim of Mexico. That year, in 1846, as part of the general US invasion of Mexican-claimed territory, US military forces invaded and began to occupy the sub-portion of Mexican-claimed territory which thereafter became known to the world as “California” (Spanish colonialist naming).

The California Holocaust (1846-1873):
The Greatest US Genocide in the Western Hemisphere 

[holocaust:
“destruction or slaughter on a mass scale” (Oxford Dictionaries)]

The first US Government-sanctioned genocidal massacres committed against Indigenous Peoples of the collective territory under present-day occupation of the US states of California and Oregon took place in the Spring of 1846 and were led by US Army Captain John C. Frémont, who had been sent in advance to the territory by the US Government when the US invasion was being prepared.

At the time of the initial US invasion of “California” in 1846, the human population of the collective territory was comprised of various Indigenous tribes consisting of a population of at least 150,000 people [source], plus a small minority population of less than 10,000 residents in European-origin settlements (mostly Mexican) [source, section ”General”].

Less than 10 years later, by 1855, the Indigenous population of the collective territory referred to as ”California” had decreased to about 50,000 people. And about 300,000 settlers had poured into the territory. [source] Most of the incoming settlers were men motivated by a quest for gold, during the period known as the California “Gold Rush(1848-1855).

Ten years later, by 1865, the Indigenous population of the collective territory referred to as “California” had decreased to about 25,000 to 30,000 people. [source (pg 304)]

By the year 1900, the Indigenous population of the collective territory referred to as “California” had decreased to about 20,000 people or less (possibly not more than 16,000 people).

The policy of mass extermination of Indigenous Peoples of the collective territory which became known as ”California” was implemented by US federal, state, and county armed forces and by US Government-funded death squads (killing squads).

In the 1850s, the US Government paid out more than $1 million in funding, via the California state government, to California death squads. The death squads were paid based on their delivery of scalps of the bodies of Indigenous people – as proof of death. [source1 (pg 322), source2]

Between 1850 and 1863, whites (European-origin people) legally abducted and enslaved about 10,000 Indigenous people of the collective territory which had become the US-occupied territory of the US state of California. Of these, 3,000-5,000 were children.  [source (pgs 312-313), constituting physical and biological genocide, criteria (b), (c), (d), (e)]

Following an in-depth independent research and study of the facts of history, the author of this report has concluded, that:  During the approximately half-century period beginning with the Sacramento River Massacre of April 1846 and until the year 1900, the Indigenous population of the collective territory referred to as “California” was intentionally reduced to near-extinction (to about 10% of the pre-US occupation Indigenous population) by a genocide [including acts (a)-(b)-(c)-(d)-(e)] headed by the US Federal Government.

Proportionally (considering the 90% reduction of the Indigenous population between 1846 and 1900, before the population began to increase again), the California Holocaust was one of the greatest genocides against a specific population in human history. 

US citizen historian Hubert H. Bancroft (1832-1918), the first modern historian of California, described that genocide as “one of the last human hunts of civilization, and the basest and most brutal of them all.” [source1 (pg 304), source2 (pg 96)]

More information on that subject, at:
The California Holocaust (1846-1873):
The Greatest US Genocide in the Western Hemisphere 

[Sources: listed in California Holocaust…]

Some Known Massacres among Many in the California Genocide:


SACRAMENTO RIVER MASSACRE
[Entry 16]

on or about 5 April 1846
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

Massacre death toll: Approx. 200-1,000 (men, women, children)
[possibly one of the massacres having the highest death toll]

US militia death toll: 0

Description:

Before the territory now known as “California” was ever called “California”, it was a beautiful, unspoiled, and free territory bordering the western ocean, where Indigenous Peoples had been thriving for thousands of years. For the Indigenous Peoples of this territory, the Sacramento River Massacre was the beginning of the end of the world.  It was the beginning point of the California Holocaust (1846-1873) — which brought to a death one world and gave birth to another world.

                                                                                                        The Beginning:
.                                              US Government Sends Captain Frémont on a Covert Mission Before the US Invasion

Preceding the US military invasion of the territory referred to as “California” (which began on 7 July 1846), top authorities of the US Federal Government gave secret orders to US Army Captain John C. Frémont to lead an expedition into “California” territory.  Frémont’s 1846 expedition mission involved initial steps in the US Government’s planned overthrow of Mexican control and US takeover of the territory. The mission had the authorization of 11th US President (1845-1849)  James K. Polk.

Frémont was the son-in-law of politically powerful US Senator (1821-1851) Thomas H. Benton — a long-time leader of the US Democratic Party and a political architect of 19th century US expansionism (a cause which became known as Manifest Destiny). Since the administration of 7th US President (1829-1837) Andrew Jackson, Benton was closely associated with US  presidents (including President Polk).

The Massacre

While lodging at a settler’s ranch in the upper Sacramento RIver Valley of “California”, Frémont was informed by US settlers that there was an encampment of a large band of Indigenous people in the nearby region.  A decision was made by Frémont to launch a pre-emptive attack on that encampment.

On or about 5 April 1846, Frémont’s armed force, mounted on horses and consisting on that day of approximately 75 heavily armed men, located the specific encampment by the Sacramento River, in a location near the present-day city of Redding. A peaceful and mostly unarmed band of probably over 1,000 Indigenous people [probably a mixture of Wintu, Yana, and Maidu [source, (pgs 46-49)] was camped by the river.

Frémont and the men under his command surrounded the encampment. Then they began their attack — with (1) [first stage of attack:] rifle shooting from a distance, and then with (2) [second stage of attack:] a charge into the encampment while shooting, followed by (3) [third stage of attack:] close-range killing inside the encampment.

The men, women, children, elders, who were not killed at the encampment, attempted to escape — most running away toward the hills, some trying to swim across the river.

(4) [forth stage of attack:] The attackers pursued them in both directions — Frémont and some of his group pursuing on horses and killing those who were running away, while the rest of his group remaining by the river and shooting continuously into the river at those trying to swim away.

[Source: “An American Genocide…” (Ch. 2, 6th-7th pgs)]

Eyewitness Testimony

The massacre lasted for over two hours. It resulted in a total death toll of between 200 and 1,000 men, women, and children (based on various accounts by men who were in Frémont’s expedition). William I. Tustin, an eyewitness, estimated the total actual death toll (including those killed in the river) as between 800 and 1,000 persons. [“An American Genocide..”, Ch. 2, 7th pg]

One of the men in Frémont’s expedition was frontiersman Christopher H. (“Kit”) Carson,  who was hired as a wilderness guide. Carson had already been participating in death squad killings and massacres against Indigenous Peoples of the Western frontier since 1829.  Historical accounts reveal Carson as a person who found pleasure in killing and scalping Indigenous people.

According to Tustin:  Frémont, Carson, and others on horseback chased escaping men, women, and children who were running for their lives and hacked them to death with tomahawks (a type of single-handed axe, resembling a hatchet).  Referring to this massacre, Kit Carson said: “It was a perfect butchery.” [“An American Genocide…”, (Ch. 2, 8th page)]

One other of the men in Frémont’s expedition was Thomas E. Breckenridge. He claimed to not have participated in the massacre and criticized the action, saying that: The Indigenous men, women, and children were “shot down like sheep, and those men [who were shooting them] never stopped as long as they could find one alive”. [“An American Genocide…” (Ch. 2, 7th pg)]

Main source for Sacramento River Massacre:
An American Genocide: The United States and the California Indian Catastrophe, 1846-1873”,
book, by Benjamin Madley (professor of history at UCLA, and author), Yale University Press, 2016,
Chapter 2 (”Prelude to Genocide: March 1846 — March 1848″), 1st — 11th pages (book review)

Info resource: ”Sacramento River Massacre”, Wikipedia


.                                                                     Future Course of the Wintu, Yana, and Maidu Peoples
.                                                        (Less Than 50 Yana Survivors by 1873; Yana Extinction by 1980):

During the California “Gold Rush” (1948-1855), tens of thousands of gold miners poured into and aggressively occupied the ancestral homeland of the Wintu, Yana, and Maidu Peoples — in the upper Sacramento River Valley (in the northern portion of the territory under present-day occupation of the US state of California).

During the California Holocaust (1846-1873), by means of the many genocidal massacres and the detrimental effects of destruction of encampments, destruction of food sources, forced relocations, and other inflicted conditions, the Wintu, Yana, and Maidu were nearly completely exterminated. Some remnants survived into the 20th century, after having been forcibly relocated to reservations or rancherias. During the 20th century, the Wintu and Maidu populations began to grow again, while the Yana tribe eventually became extinct.

During the California Holocaust, the Yana population decreased from a pre-US occupation population of between about 2,000 and 3,000 people (or possibly more)  to a remnant of less than 50 persons by 1873. The lineage of this surviving remnant probably became extinct by the year 1980. [Yana source1 (pgs 109-11), Yana source2]

Future Course of Captain Frémont
(Gold, Wealth, and Power): 

In the two-year period 1846-1848, following the Sacramento River Massacre, John Frémont participated as one of the US military leaders in the US military invasion and takeover from the State of Mexico of the territory referred to as “California”. In May 1846, in preparation for the approaching US invasion, Frémont was appointed to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel directly by President Polk. After the surrender of the Mexican authorities in 1847, Frémont initially took over control as Military Governor of California Territory for a short period.

While the Indigenous Peoples of “California” began to be exterminated under US occupation of their ancestral homeland, Frémont began to become very wealthy from a gold-mining enterprise he set up in the territory during the California Gold Rush (1848-1855). He soon became a millionaire and began to live a very wealthy lifestyle with his wife and family, among the ruling class of the United States, while pursuing his political and entrepreneurial ambitions.

Following the formal Mexican cession of the territory referred to as “California” to the United States in 1848, the US Government instituted the state of California as the 31st US state in 1850. Having close connections to the highest officials of the US Federal Government, Frémont held office in the US Government during 1850-1851 as one of the two senators in the first pair of senators representing the newly-instituted US state of California. Five years later, in 1856, campaigning as the first presidential candidate of the newly-formed US Republican Party (founded in 1854), Frémont came close to receiving the office of 16th US President. (But he lost the race to US Democratic Party candidate James Buchanan.)

Future Course of Kit Carson
(Role in the Navajo Holocaust):

Kit Carson, following his involvement in the US invasion and occupation of “California”, was officially employed by the US Government. During the administration of 16th US President (1861-1865) Abraham Lincoln, Carson was appointed as a colonel in the US Federal Army and served as a US Army leader in the US Government’s genocidal war and forced removal campaign against the Apache People and the Navajo People in territory under present-day occupation of the US states of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.

Long Walk of the Navajo: In a forced removal policy then headed by Abraham Lincoln, and under orders by Major General James H. Carleton, Colonel Kit Carson commanded the forced removal of the Navajo People in 1864, known as the Long Walk of the Navajo.

More information on that subject:
THE LONG WALK OF THE NAVAJO:
The Forced Relocation of the Navajo People
(An Event in the Navajo Holocaust)


SUTTER BUTTES MASSACRE
[Entry 17]

June 1846
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

Massacre death toll: ‘‘several” (unaccounted)
US militia death toll: 0 or minimal

In a campaign of terror intended to terrorize local Indigenous Peoples into submission, US Army Lieutenant Colonel John C. Frémont [son-in-law of US Senator (1821-1851) Thomas H. Benton and a leader of the US Military invasion of California territory] ordered and commanded a genocidal massacre of Indigenous people at a rancheria near the location of present-day Meridian.

Neither Frémont nor any of the men under his command were charged or punished in any way for the killings.

Info resource: “Sutter Buttes Massacre”, Wikipedia


CALIFORNIA SLAVER MASSACRES (1840s)
[Entry 18]

(multiple massacres)

[This entry includes multiple massacres of Indigenous people by US-affiliated slavers during the period of the early US colonization of the ”California” territory (1840s) — in which whole villages were attacked, hundreds of Indigenous men, women, and children were killed, and hundreds more were taken captive and enslaved. None of the perpetrators were ever charged with a crime by the US colonialist authorities which began to govern the territory in 1847.]

Throughout 1840s
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

Massacres death toll: hundreds (men, women, children)
US slaver death toll: minimal

“The villages were attacked usually before daybreak when everybody was still asleep. Neither old nor young was spared by the enemy, and often the Sacramento River was colored red by the blood of the innocent [Indigenous people], for these villages usually were situated at the banks of the rivers… Seldom an [Indigenous person] escaped such an attack, and those who were not murdered were captured. All children from six to fifteen years of age were usually taken by the greedy white people… ”

— Theodor Cordua, a German immigrant who leased land from US-affiliated settler and slaver Johann (John) A. Sutter (founder of the initial settlement which developed into Sacramento, the capital city of the US state of California) [source]

One of the “minor” (so-to-speak) known examples of these massacres:

KONKOW MAIDU SLAVER MASSACRE

Late June or early July 1847

Massacre death toll: between approx. 12 and 20,
plus an unaccounted number of young children killed during relocation

Slaver death toll: 0

A group of white settlers involved in the enslavement of Indigenous people, during a slave raid led by Antonio Armijo, Robert Smith, and John Eggar, while taking captive a group of Konkow Maidu people to enslave them, mass murdered between 10 and 20 people who attempted to escape.

The slavers took into bondage at least 30 Maidu people, mostly women and children. Along the journey back, they murdered young children who were unable to continue.

The aforementioned men were arrested by the US occupational army. However, US judges acquitted all three men at trial.

During the 1840s, enslavement of Indigenous people of the territory which became known as “California” was already a widespread de facto practice under the authority of the state of Mexico.

In 1850, US slavery of Indigenous people was officially legalized by the US colonialist government of California following the incorporation of California into the United States. The mass murder of Indigenous people was also officially legalized by the Government of California at the same time.

This was all with the political, military, and financial support of the US Federal Government during the period of the California Gold Rush (1848-1855) and following years.

In 1863, under the administration of 16th US President Abraham Lincoln, slavery was made illegal in California-jurisdiction territory. De facto enslavement of Indigenous people continued until at least 1874.

Info resources (for California Slaver Massacres):
Resource 1: “Konkow Maidu Slaver Massacre”, Wikipedia
Resource 2: “Kern and Sutter Massacres”, Wikipedia


BLOODY ISLAND MASSACRE
(a.k.a. CLEAR LAKE MASSACRE)
[Entry 19]

15 May 1850
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

Massacre death toll: At least 100-200 (mostly women and children),
plus at least 75 people at a nearby massacre
[● RUSSIAN RIVER MASSACRE (Entry 20), a. 17 May 1850]

US soldier/militia death toll: 0

A California State Parks historical landmark near the site of the massacre at what was once Bonopoti. This landmark was placed on 15 May 2005 by the California State Department of Parks and Recreation (a.k.a. California State Parks) in cooperation with the Lucy Moore Foundation (a nonprofit organization founded to educate the public about the massacre at Bonopoti).

Description:

The Massacre at Bonopoti on 15 May 1850:

A detachment of US Army cavalry and a militia, led by Lieutenant Nathaniel Lyon and Lieutenant John W. Davidson, attacked and killed at least between 100 and 200 Pomo people — possibly more, according to various estimates — at an island encampment called Badon-napo-ti“, or “Bo-no-po-ti (Pomo naming, meaning “Old Island”), at the north end of a lake known to US settlers as “Clear Lake”, in territory under present-day local jurisdiction of Lake County. At least 75 more Pomo were massacred at a nearby location (along the “Russian River”) on one of the following days under the command of Lieutenants Lyon and Davidson.

The US Army authorities had been informed that some members of the Pomo people of the area had killed two Clear Lake settlers — Andrew Kelsey (who was associated with US Army Captain John C. Frémont during the initial US invasion of the territory now known as ”California”) and Charles Stone. Kelsey and Stone had imposed a local US colonialist tyranny in the area and had been enslaving (including sexual slavery), severely abusing, and murdering Pomo people. [BIsource6 (pgs 5-16)]

Most of the young men at Bonopoti were out in the mountains to the north, hunting, when the US solders and militiamen arrived. The people present were mostly women, children, and elderly men.

The island Pomo leader Ge-Wi-Lih met the soldiers/militiamen with his hands up to indicate peace. But the soldiers/militiamen immediately began shooting. [BIsource4, details: BIsource5 (pg 53)]

The soldiers/militiamen then proceeded to indiscriminately massacre the island community.

The soldiers/militiamen shot and bayoneted the people to death. (BIsources 1, 2, 3) (A bayonet is a knife sticking out of a rifle, which may be used to stab a person to death.) They bayoneted infants and small children and threw their bodies into the water. [BIsource2, details: BIsource5 (pg 53)] They stepped on and crushed infants. (BIsource1) They picked up infants and smashed their heads against tree trunks (a practice US soldiers/militiamen during the 19th century called ”braining”). (BIsource1)

There was very little resistance possible, and the US soldiers/militiamen suffered no injuries. It was a pure massacre, which turned the island into the ”Bloody Island”. Many of those people who tried to escape across the water were shot as they swam. Under Lieutenant Lyon’s command, US soldiers/militiamen hunted down escapees and killed them. (BI sources 1, 2, 3)

According to the testimony of a Pomo woman named Ba-Don-Bi-Da-Meh, one Pomo man who was caught by US soldiers/militiamen near a hill was tied to a tree and burned alive to death. [BIsource5 (pg 53)]

Only a very small number of the Pomo people who had been at Bonopoti survived that tragic day.

One of the Pomo survivors of the massacre at Bonopoti was a 6-year-old girl named Ni’ka (who also became known by the Anglicized name, Lucy Moore). She survived the massacre by hiding underwater and breathing through a tule reed. One hundred and fifty years later, in the year 2000, Ni’ka’s (Lucy Moore’s) great-grandson Clayton Duncan founded the Lucy Moore Foundation (a non-profit organization founded to educate the public about the massacre at Bonopoti). (BIsources 1, 2)

Aftermath of the Clear Lake Massacres of 15 May 1850:

According to Clayton Duncan: The members of the militia, some of them prominent members of US colonialist society, subsequently took possession of the best Pomo lands around the lake and all over Lake County. The unofficial design of this particular military expedition was to “clear” the land of its Indigenous inhabitants. The policy of the State of California during the 1850s, supported by the US Federal Government, was the mass extermination of the whole Indigenous population. (BIsources 1, 4)

As with ALL of the other massacres listed on this page, there was never any accountability by the US Government or Military for this genocidal massacre. Why? Because: EXTERMINATION WAS POLICY.

Lieutenants Lyon and Davidson were both promoted by the US Federal Army to the rank of Brigadier General during the US Civil War, with the approval of 16th US President (1861-1865) Abraham Lincoln. Lyon received the high position of Commander of the Department of the West. (BIsource2) After he was killed soon afterwards, Lyon was honored by the US Congress, which passed a resolution of thanks for his military service.

The US Army’s act of physical genocide at Clear Lake on 15 May 1850 encouraged and led to a general outbreak of US settler attacks and mass killings against Indigenous people all over the northern portion of the territory under present-day jurisdiction of the US state of California. There were many other genocidal massacres that year in the region – including massacres against the Yurok people. During the 1850s-’60s California Holocaust, the Pomo and Yurok populations were reduced to approximately 25% or less of what they were before the holocaust.

Thereafter, the remnant of the Pomo were forced to live in small rancherias set aside by the US Federal Government. For most of the 20th century, the Pomo, greatly reduced in number, survived on such tiny reservations in poverty. (BIsource2)

Info resources: “..Massacres”, ”Bloody Island Massacre”, Wikipedia
More info:  BIsource1BIsource2BIsource3BIsource4, BIsource5, BIsource6


OLD SHASHTA MASSACRE
[Entry 21]

1851
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

Massacre death toll: Approx. 300 (men, women, children)
US death squad death toll: 0 or minimal

Description:

“US miners killed about 300 Wintu Indigenous people near Old Shasta, California and burned down their tribal council meeting house.” [“…Massacres”]


BRIDGE GULCH MASSACRE
[Entry 22]

23 April 1852
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

Massacre death toll: At least 150-200 (men, women, children)
US militia death toll: 0 or minimal

Description:

At the Nor-rel-muk village in “Hayfork Valley”, a Trinity County Militia force of approximately 70 militiamen, led by Trinity County Sheriff William H. Dixon, killed over 150 (possibly up to 300) Wintu people — nearly all the people of the village — in retaliation for the killing of Colonel John Anderson.

According to Augustus W. Knapp: The militia returned to the town of Weaverville with approximately 150 scalps of the victims hanging to their girdles. There was “wild excitement and joy” in that US town for the extermination of that Wintu band, and scalps of the victims were nailed to many door posts in the town for quite a while.

Info resources: “…Massacres”, ”Bridge Gulch Massacre”, Wikipedia
More info: source


WRIGHT MASSACRE
(of November 1852)
[Entry 23]

(related to multiple massacres against the Modoc People)

November 1852

Massacre death toll: Approx. 50 (men, women, children)
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

US death squad death toll:

Description:

A US settler death squad led by a notorious ‘Indian hunter’ [bounty killer of Indigenous people] named Benjamin (Ben) Wright massacred approximately 50 Modocs during a “peace conference”.

That was one of a series of massacres of Indigenous people by US death squad leader and serial rapist Ben Wright — supported by the US Government through the Government of California.

“The savages [derogatory term referring to indigenous non-European people not assimilated into European colonialist civilization] were searched out from among the sage brush and shot like rabbits.”

“Long poles were taken… and those taking refuge in the river were poked out and shot as they struggled in the water. To avoid the bullets the ‘Indians’ [Indigenous (Modoc) people] would dive and swim beneath the water, but watching the bubbles rise as they swam, the men shot them when they came up for air.”

— Colonel William Thompson,
describing events according to the eyewitness testimony of Frank Riddle
(one of the death squad members who participated in the massacre),
“Reminiscences of a Pioneer”, Chapter 9

Info resource:   “…Massacres”, Wikipedia
WM Source 1: ”The Indian Killer Dubbed ‘Knight of the Frontier’”, Indian Country Today
WM Source 2: “Centuries of Genocide: Modoc Indians, Part I (Contact, 1820-1852)”, Native American Netroots


YONTOKET MASSACRE
[Entry 24]

1853
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

Massacre death toll: probably Approx. 450-600 (men, women, and children)
[one of the massacres having the highest death toll]

US death squad death toll: 0

Description:

A  US settler death squad, led by J. M. Peters, attacked and burned a Tolowa village at Yontoket, killing at least 450 (according to one reliable Tolowa estimate), and possibly up to 600 (according to another Tolowa source), men, women, and children, during a religious ceremony.

Yontoket [pronounced approximately, Yan-da-kwet] was “the spiritual center of the Tolowa world”.  It was located approximately 20 km (13 miles) north of the present-day city of Crescent City. There, Tolowa pilgrims met with people from other related tribes of the surrounding region to pray and celebrate the World Renewal Dance, the Nee-dash, or “Feather Dance”.

While the hundreds of Indigenous people gathered at Yontoket were sleeping, their village was encircled at dawn by J. M. Peters’ death squad.

In the words of the genocidal death squad leader  J. M. Peters, recollecting the massacre he led that day:

“Immediately the ‘Indians’ [Indigenous (Yontoket) people] came creeping out of their huts, armed with bows and arrows. But these primitive weapons were no match to the improved arms of the whites… On all sides, as the savages [derogatory term referring to indigenous non-European people not assimilated into European colonialist civilization] attempted to escape, they were shot down, and the crack of rifles and [Indigenous people’s] yells, intermingled with the screams of women and children, made the scene one of wild confusion.” [“New Directions in Genocide Research” (pg 177)]

Peters and his death squad burned down the whole village. According to Peters, nearly everyone at the village was killed in the attack. (That is confirmed by the few survivor accounts.) 

The death toll among Peters’ death squad: 0.

Description based on some survivor eyewitness accounts:

The death squad was hacking people to death (including cutting off heads). Women who would try to get away were grabbed and thrown into the fire to be burned alive. Or they would be shot in the back as they ran away. Infants were also thrown into the fire to be burned alive. The water by the village was red with blood. And it was filled with the bodies of the people (who had tried to run away but were shot to death), floating all over. [“New Directions in Genocide Research” (pg 178)]

Main source: ”New Directions in Genocide Research” (pgs 177-178),
book (genocide research by various contributers), edited by Adam Jones, 2012
Further info resource: ”Yontoket Massacre”, Wikipedia


ACHULET MASSACRE
[Entry 25]

1853
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

Massacre death toll: Approx. 65-150
US death squad death toll: 0

Description:

“US settlers launched an attack on a Tolowa village near Lake Earl in California, killing between 65 and 150 Indigenous people at dawn.” [“…Massacres”]

Info resource: ”Achulet Massacre”, Wikipedia

..


HOWONQUET MASSACRE
[Entry 26]

1853
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

Massacre death toll: Approx. 70 (men, women, children)
US death squad death toll: 0 or minimal

Description:

“US settlers attacked and burned the Tolowa village of Howonquet, massacring (approx.) 70 people.” [“…Massacres”]


ASBILL MASSACRE
[Entry 27]

15 May 1854
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

Massacre death toll: Approx. 40 (men, possibly women, children)
US death squad death toll: 0

Description:

A band of six Missouri-based US explorers led by Pierce Asbill, while exploring “Round Valley” [US naming, named in 1846 by US Army Captain John C. Frémont (leader of initial US invasion of the collective territory which became known as ”California”)]  [source (pg 322)], in territory under present-day local jurisdiction of Mendocino County, encountered a large settlement of Yuki and killed approximately 40 of the people.

By 1855, Asbill had personally abducted and sold at least 35 Indigenous women and girls. [source1 (pg 148), source2 (pg 312)]

Info resource: ”Asbill Massacre”, Wikipedia
More info: ”Yuki of Northern California” (2nd paragraph),

Encyclopedia.com (Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity),
article (historical), by Virginia P. Miller, 2005


KABYAI CREEK MASSACRE
(or KAIBAI CREEK MASSACRE)
[Entry 28]

17 August 1854
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

Massacre death toll: Approx. 42
US death squad death toll: 0 or minimal

Description:

“A party of US settlers attacked a Winnemem Wintu village at Kabyai Creek, on the McCloud River. 42 Winnemem Wintu men, women, and children were killed.” (source1)

“The site of the village is on the McCloud River at the mouth of Kabyai Creek across the river from the McCloud Bridge Campground in the Shasta-Trinity National Forest, in Shasta County, California.” (source1)

”The Winnemem Wintu, which means ‘middle water people’, were a large, proud community of between 14,000 and 18,000 people in 1850 when trappers and other settlers first arrived. They lived by the McCloud River in a village called Kaibai, surviving mostly on the abundant salmon. Disease, massacres and forced relocations reduced the number of tribe members to 395 within 50 years of the arrival of white people. Today [in year 2012], there are only 125 members who still maintain the ancient traditions, pray, and hold ceremonies at the few remaining sacred sites that aren’t under water.” (source2)

”The village site is among those of the Winnemem Wintu being threatened with being submerged by Shasta Lake if the proposed raising of Shasta Dam occurs. In 1851, tribal leaders signed what was called the Cottonwood Treaty, which would have set up a 35-square-mile reservation for the tribe, but the US Senate refused to ratify it. That decision, and the flooding of 4,000 acres of ancestral lands when Shasta Dam began holding water in 1944, is why the Winnemem no longer have any tribal land.” (source2)

Source 1: Info resource: ”Kabyai Creek Massacre”, Wikipedia
Source 2: ”Winnemen Wintu Tribe Stages War Dance as Protest”,

San Fransisco Gate (SFGate), article (news, historical), by Peter Fimrite, 26 May 2012


KLAMATH RIVER MASSACRES
[Entry 29]

(multiple massacres)

(22 January — March 1855)
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

Multiple massacres total death toll:
Unaccounted (men, women, children)

US militia / death squad death toll: minimal

Description:

“In retaliation for the murder of six settlers and the theft of some cattle, US settlers commenced a ‘war of extermination against the [Indigenous (Wiyot) people]’ in Humboldt County, California.” [“…Massacres”, “Klamath River Massacres”, Wikipedia]




SHINGLETOWN MASSACRE
[Entry 30]

March 1856
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

Massacre death toll: At least 20
US death squad death toll: 0 or minimal

Description:

In reprisal for stock theft by Indigenous persons, US settlers massacred at least 20 Yana men, women, and children near Shingletown, California.” [“…Massacres”]


ROUND VALLEY MASSACRES
[Entries 31-51]

(multiple massacres)

[The exact number of Round Valley massacres during the 4-year period 1856-1859 is unknown. Because of the very many Round Valley massacres during that period, this report gives 21 anonymous entries to the Round Valley Massacres section (approx. 5 entries for each year of that period). These entries represent the unknown number of the very many specific Round Valley massacres during the Yuki Holocaust (1954-1964), which nearly completely exterminated the Yuki People.]

1856-1859
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

Multiple massacres total death toll:
Over 1,000 (men, women, children)
(conservative estimate)

US military/milia/death squad death toll: minimal

Description:

The Round Valley Massacres were a 4-year campaign of physical genocide [criteria (a), (b), (c)] against the Yuki People (a.k.a. the Yukiah) — committed mostly by US settler militias and death squads, sanctioned directly by the Government of the US state of California and indirectly by the US Federal Government.

The genocide first began in 1854 with the Asbill Massacre, instigated by a group of US explorers led by Pierce Asbill.

During the 1850s, US settlers abducted many Yuki women and girls and sold them into slavery (including sexual slavery) to US and Mexican men, and US settlers abducted and sold away a large percentage of the Yuki children.

During the 4-year period 1856-’57-’58-’59, the genocidal massacres by US militia and settler death squads against the Yuki People were so frequent as to be uncountable. The massacre death toll is unknowable (certainly more than 1,000 men, women, and children). 

”…Armed parties went into the rancherias in open day, when no evil was apprehended, and shot the [Indigenous (Yuki)  people] down — weak, harmless, and defenseless as they were — without distinction of age or sex; shot down women with sucking babes at their breasts; killed or crippled the naked children that were running about.”

report of Special Treasury Agent John (J.) Ross Browne,
US Department of the Interior
(dispatched to investigate the “Indian Wars” in and around “Round Valley”)

[source2 (pg 317)]

“However cruel it may be, …nothing short of extermination will suffice to rid the Country of them [the Yuki].”

Captain Walter S. Jarboe,
official report to California Governor (1858-1860) John B. Weller,
3 December 1859
[source2, (pg 321)]

[Jarboe was a US settler and the leader of the California state militia ”Eal River Rangers”, a death squad commissioned by California Governor Weller. On 12 April 1860, the California State Legislature appropriated about $10,000 for payment to the Eal River Rangers (for acts of genocide committed during period July 1859 — January 1860), indirectly sanctioned and paid for by the US Federal Government. (source2, pg 321)]

”[The Eal River Rangers] are slaughtering indiscriminately all the [Indigenous (Yuki) people] they meet; men, women and children are killed by them.”

Major Edward Johnson
(commander of the military district including “Round Valley”),
official report to his commanding officer,

22 October 1859
[source2 (pg 320)]

“The attacking party rushed upon [the Indigenous (Yuki) people], blowing out their brains, and splitting their heads open with tomahawks. Little children in baskets, and even babes, had their heads smashed to pieces or cut open. Mothers and infants shared the same phenomenon …

Many of the fugitives were chased and shot as they ran … The children scarcely able to run, toddled towards the ‘squaw’ [slang derogatory term referring to an Indigenous womanfor protection, crying with fright, but were overtaken, slaughtered like wild animals, and thrown into piles…”

— a description of one of the Eal River Ranger’s raids as described at the time by the Alta Californian newspaper
[source (section ”Genocide of Native People”)]

The genocide by the Eal River Rangers was committed with the knowledge and complicity of the leaderships of the US Army and the US Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), which were implementing the US conquest of the region under US Government orders. [source2 (pg 320)]

According to California genocide scholar Benjamin Madley:  Like many of the Indigenous people of the collective territory which became known as ”California”, ”the Yuki suffered a cataclysmic population decline under United States rule. Between 1854 and 1864, settlement policies, murders, abductions, massacres, rape-induced venereal diseases, and willful neglect at Round Valley Reservation reduced them from perhaps 20,000 to several hundred.” [source2 (pg 304)]

[Round Valley Reservation was, at the time, a US Federal Government concentration camp, to where Indigenous people of the ”Northern California” region who had not already been killed or abducted were forcefully relocated.

If the relocated people survived the relocation journey (which many of the elderly or sick did not), they were kept in captivity and enslaved, overworked, kept nearly naked, and/or subjected to starvation or malnutrition and to disease and homicide, mass murder, and sometimes rape by US settler vigilantes.

As a result of all of the aforementioned conditions, the majority of the US Government’s Indigenous captives sent to Round Valley Reservation died between 1858 and 1864. (UN/ICC physical genocide, criteria (a), (b), (c)]. ] [source2 (pgs 322-328)]

By 1864, there remained only a maximum of about 600 Yuki genocide survivors (about 300 people in Round Valley Reservation and perhaps another about 300 people in the surrounding mountains). [source2 (pgs 328-329), source3]

By 1900, the Yuki population had become reduced to a very small remnant of about 100 individuals.

Nearly 150 years later, in a 2010 population census, 569 people claimed Yuki ancestry (255 of them were full-blooded). The Yuki language is no longer spoken. (resource3)

Info resources:
Resource 1: “…Massacres”, Wikipedia
Resource 2: “Round Valley Settler Massacres of 1856-1859”, Wikipedia
Resource 3: “Yuki People”, Wikipedia

More sources:
Source 1: “An American Genocide: The United States and the California Indian Catastrophe
(section, “The Mendocino Expedition, 1859-1860”),
book, by Benjamin Madley (author/professor, history, UCLA), Yale University Press, 2016
Source 2: “California’s Yuki Indians: Defining Genocide in Native American History”,
Western Historical Quarterly, Autumn 2008, article (historical), by Benjamin Madley
Source 3: “Yuki of Northern California”, Encyclopedia.com (Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity),
article (historical), by Virginia P. Miller 2005


PIT RIVER MASSACRE OF 3 SEPTEMBER 1859
[Entry 52]

(related to multiple Pit River massacres during 1859)

3 September 1859
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

Massacre death toll: Approx. 70 (men, women, children)
US militia death toll: minimal

Description:

“US settlers massacred (approx.) 70 Achomawi Indigenous people [(approx.) 10 men and (approx.) 60 women and children] in their village on Pit River in California.” [“…Massacres”]

The Pit River Massacre of 3 September 1859 was only one of many acts of aggression, genocide, and crimes against humanity in the Pit River Invasion of 1859.

A company of 93 California militia, the Kibbe Rangers (a.k.a. Kibbe’s Guards), led by Captain William Byrnes, was organized by 3rd Adjuntant General of California (1852-1864), William C. Kibbe, under orders by 5th Governor of California (1858-1860), John B. Weller.

In 1859, the Kibbe Rangers were sent to carry out a three-month military operation of extermination, destruction of villages, and ethnic cleansing against the Indigenous Peoples of the territory under the present-day local jurisdiction of the counties of Tehama, Shasta, Plumas, and Butte.

The majority of the Indigenous inhabitants of this territory, the Pit River Indigenous Peoples, either died or were taken captive and forcibly relocated to US-designated “reservations”. Many stories of brutal massacres and senseless racist killings of Pit River Indigenous people have been handed down through the people’s oral tradition.


CHICO CREEK MASSACRE
[Entry 53]

1859
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

Massacre death toll: Approx. 40 (men, women, children)
US death squad death toll: 0 or minimal

Description:

“US settlers attacked a Maidu camp near Chico Creek in California, killing indiscriminately (approx.) 40 Indigenous people.”
[“…Massacres”]


BLOODY ROCK MASSACRE
[Entry 54]

1860
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

Massacre death toll: Approx. 65 (men, women, children)
US death squad death toll: 0 or minimal

Description:

A group of (approx) 65 Yuki Indigenous people were surrounded and massacred by US settlers at Bloody Rock, in Mendocino County, California.” [“…Massacres”]


WIYOT MASSACRE OF 26 FEBRUARY 1860
[Entry 55]

26 February 1860
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

Massacre death toll: Approx. 150-250
(mostly women, children, and elders)

US death squad death toll: 0 or minimal

Description:

In three nearly simultaneous assaults on the Wiyot, at Tuluwat (which US settlers called “Indian Island”), near Eureka, Rio Dell, and near Hydesville, in territory under present-day jurisdiction of Humboldt County, US settlers — using guns, axes, and knives — killed between 150 and 250 Wiyot.

Victims were mostly women, children, and elders, as reported by Bret Harte at Arcata newspaper. Other villages were massacred within two days.

”Old women wrinkled and decrepit lay weltering in blood; their brains dashed out and dabbled with their long grey hair. Infants scarcely a span long with their faces cloven with hatchets and their bodies ghastly with wounds.” — Bret Harte [newspaper journalist (source)]

There were few survivors. Among those: One woman, Jane Sam, survived by hiding in a trash pile. A young boy, Jerry James, was found alive in his dead mother’s arms.

The main site is National Register of Historic Places in the United States #66000208.

[“…Massacres”; Wikipedia article]

More US genocidal massacres of the Wiyot followed in the following period of time – including the ● SOUTH FORK MASSACRE [Entry 56] (28 February 1860, approx. 40 Wiyot killed) and the ● EAGLE PRAIRIE MASSACRE [Entry 57] (early March 1860, approx. 35 Wiyot killed).




HORSE CANYON MASSACRE
[Entry 58]

1861
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

Massacre death toll: Approx. 240 (men, women, and children)
US death squad and Indigenous mercenary death toll: 0 or minimal

Description:

“US settlers and Indigenous allies attacked a Wailaki village in Horse Canyon (Round Valley, California), killing up to 240 Wailakis.”
[“…Massacres”]


UPPER STATION MASSACRE
[Entry 59]

1862
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

Massacre death toll: Approx. 20 (men, women, children)
US death squad death toll: 0 or minimal

Description:

“US settlers killed at least 20 Wailakis in Round Valley, California.” [“…Massacres”]


BIG ANTELOPE CREEK MASSACRE
[Entry 60]

1862
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

Massacre death toll: Approx. 25 (men, women, children)
US death squad death toll: 0

Description:

“US settlers led by notorious ‘Indian hunter’ [bounty killer of Indigenous people] Hi Good launched a dawn attack on a Yana village, massacring about 25 Indigenous people” [“…Massacres”]

More information about death squad leader, Captain Harmon (”Hi”) A. Good:
Hi Good Report


KOWONK MASSACRE
[Entry 61]

August 1862

Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

Massacre death toll: Approx. 45 (men, women, children)
US death squad death toll: 0 or minimal

Description:

“A US settler militia force of (approx.) 25 militiamen killed (approx.) 45 Concow Maidu people on their reservation in Round Valley, California.” [“…Massacres”; more info: source]


OWENS LAKE MASSACRE
[Entry 62]

19 March 1863
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

Massacre death toll: Approx. 35-40 (men, women, children)
US soldier and death squad death toll: 0 or minimal

Description:

“US vigilantes [including soldiers and settlers] attacked a Paiute camp on Owens Lake in California, killing about 40 men, women, and children.” [“…Massacres”; more info: source]


KEYESVILLE MASSACRE
[Entry 63]

19 Apr 1863
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

Massacre death toll: Approx. 35 (men)
US militia death toll: 0 or minimal

Description:

“US settler militia and members of the California cavalry killed (approx.) 35 Tubatulabal men in Kern County, California.” [“…Massacres”]


COTTONWOOD MASSACRE
[Entry 64]

1864
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

Massacre death toll: Approx. 20 (men, women, possibly children)
US death squad death toll: 0 or minimal


Description:

“(Approx.) 20 Yanas of both genders were killed by US settlers in the town of Cottonwood, California.” [“…Massacres”]




OAK RUN MASSACRE
[Entry 65]

1864
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

Massacre death toll: Approx. 300 (men, women, children)
US death squad death toll: 0 or minimal

Description:

“US settlers massacred (approx.) 300 Yana [Indigenous people] who had gathered near the head of Oak Run, California for a spiritual ceremony.” [“…Massacres”]


MILL CREEK MASSACRE
[Entry 66]

14 August 1865
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

..                                                                               Massacre death toll: Appox. 40
.                                                                                   US death squad death toll: 0

.                                                                                                    Description:

A US settler death squad led by Harmon (”Hi”) Good and Robert Anderson mass murdered approximately 40 Yahi. The surviving children were sold to local ranchers. [source1, source2 (pg 11)]


SILVA MASSACRE
[Entry 67]

1865
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

Massacre death toll: Appox. 30
US death squad death toll: 0

Description:

A US settler death squad led by Harmon (”Hi”) Good and Robert Anderson mass murdered approximately 30 Yahi. [source]


THREE KNOLLS MASSACRE
[Entry 68]

1865 or 1866
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

Massacre death toll: Approx. 40 (men, women, children)
(including escapees killed afterwards by cattlemen who used dogs to hunt them)

US death squad death toll: 0

Description:

“US settlers [a 16-man or 17-man death squad led by Harmon (”Hi”) Good and Robert Anderson] massacred a [Yahi] Yana community at Three Knolls on the Mill Creek, California.” [“…Massacres”]

The massacre began at dawn while the Yahi people slept.

“The attack came upon them like a thunderbolt out of the sky. Into the stream they leapt, but few got out alive. Instead, many dead bodies floated down the rapid current.”

— Robert A. Anderson,
one of the death squad leaders accountable for the Three Knolls Massacre,
proudly recalling the brutal act of genocide

Sources (for Three Knolls Massacre):
source1, Indian Country Today; source2 [”An American Genocide…” (section ”Scattered Killings and Massacre, 1865-1866”)]

The Story of the Last of the Yahi

An approx. 5-year old boy and his mother escaped death during the Three Knolls Massacre by floating down Deer Creek among the dead bodies.

(More than 45 years later, the approximately 50-year old Yahi man who had been that boy, who had not had the chance to be formally named by his tribe and did not have a name to give, was given the adopted name ”Ishi” by anthropologist Alfred Kroeber. In this report, that man will be referred to as the ”Last of the Yahi”.)

Following the extermination of their tribe (leaving only a few survivors), the Last of the Yahi and a few of his surviving relatives lived in hidden isolation from European “civilization” in the mountain forests of the Sierra wilderness for more than 40 years.

Following the death of his last surviving relatives, the Last of the Yahi remained alone as the last known Yahi survivor. At the age of approximately 50, starving and with nowhere to go, he walked out into the modern California civilization of the time, in 1911.

In the US civilization which had exterminated his people, the Last of the Yahi could no longer live as a free human being. His natural right of liberty was to be violated, as he was first arrested and jailed by US police, then taken in by anthropologists at the University of California at Berkeley, who treated him as a specimen for anthropological study and public display.

The University of California anthropologists exploited the Last of the Yahi as a specimen for study and display for five years, while providing him shelter and his basic physical necessities at the Museum of Anthropology (a university building in San Fransisco), until he died of a disease of European civilization, tuberculosis, in 1916.

The Last of the Yahi “was put on display at the museum, where outsiders could watch him make arrows and describe aspects of Yahi culture. There is no historical evidence that shows if [he] had a choice in the matter.” (source, Daily Californian)

The Last of the Yahi became widely acclaimed in the collective territory under occupation of the 48-state contiguous United States as the ”last wild Indian”. (By then, the whole Indigenous population of the collective territory had been, basically, either exterminated or forcibly relocated to US Government ”reservations” and forcibly assimilated into US ”civilization”).

After the Last of the Yahi died, the body he left behind was treated by the University of California anthropologists as an object of anthropological research. Against his stated will, an extensive autopsy of his dead body was immediately conducted by University of California Campus Doctor Saxton Pope. (source)

The brain was removed from the body, so that it would be used for eugenics-centered research studying the “heirarchy of intelligence”. (source) The brain was later sent to the Smithsonian Institute. In the year 2000, more than 80 years after the Last of the Yahi’s death, the Smithsonian Institute gave his brain to his closest living relatives (Indigenous persons who trace some descent from the extinct Yana People of which the Yahi tribe was a subgroup). Thereafter, his closest living relatives gave his bodily remains a proper burial according to their tradition. (source)

Sources (for the Last of the Yahi): Info resource: “Ishi”, Wikipedia; More info: source, Daily Californian

ishi_in_2_worlds_cover_cropped
The Last of the Yahi (who survived the Three Knolls Massacre as a very young child and became the last known survivor of the exterminated Yahi tribe following the California Holocaust). He became known throughout US citizen society by the adopted name “Ishi” (given to him by University of California anthropologists who were exploiting him for scientific study). “Ishi was dubbed the ‘Last Wild Indian’ upon emerging from the mountains of California, where he had been hiding for 44 years after his tribe’s death by massacre. His life story is a chronicle of genocide. Who were the real savages here?” — cover excerpt from “Ishi in Two Worlds: A Biography of the Last Wild Indian in North America” (source)



CAMPO SECO MASSACRE
[Entry 69]

1868
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of California

Massacre death toll: Approx. 33
US militia death toll: 0 or minimal

Description:

“A US settler militia force massacred 33 Yahis in a cave north of Mill Creek, California.” [“…Massacres”]


KINGSLEY CAVE MASSACRE
[Entry 70]

1871
Territory under present-day occupation of the US state of California

Massacre death toll: Approx. 30
US death squad death toll: 0 or minimal

Description:

“4 settlers killed (approx.) 30 Yahi Indigenous people in Tehama County, California, about two miles [approx. 3 km] from Wild Horse Corral in the Ishi Wilderness.

It is estimated that this massacre left only (approx.) 15 members of the Yahi tribe alive.”

(The Yahi tribe were a subgroup of the Yana People, one of the indigenous peoples of the territory which became known as “Northern California”.)

[“…Massacres”]

—————————————————————————–

IV. ARIZONA HOLOCAUST MASSACRES

1863-1875
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Arizona

[holocaust:
“destruction or slaughter on a mass scale” (Oxford Dictionaries)]

Description:

Following the US war of conquest against the State of Mexico [known as the US-Mexican War (1846-1848)] and the surrender of Mexico in 1848, Mexico ceded to the United States the northern portion of the territory under its jurisdiction. That portion included the territory now known as “Arizona”.

Soon after the official transfer of jurisdiction of this territory from one colonialist power (Mexico) to another (USA), the US Army invaded, in the early 1850s, initiating a war of conquest against Indigenous Peoples of the territory. This war intensified in the 1860s, becoming officially a campaign of extermination and forced removal.

Two primary groups of Indigenous Peoples in this territory were the Apache People and the Yavapai People. (The Yavapai were incorrectly categorized as a subgroup of the Apache by the US colonialist regime.) During the period 1863 to 1875, the US Government (on the federal, territorial, and county levels) and US settler death squads carried out a physical genocide against the Apache and the Yavapai.

Often, Indigenous children would be taken captive and sold into slavery by US territorial militia. [Yavapai source4, pg 48] US settlers murdered Indigenous people and raped Indigenous women regularly without any criminal convictions. [Yavapai source4, pg 63]

During the 10-year period 1865-1875, the Yavapai population was reduced from about 6,000 members to less than 2,000 members. [Yavapai source2] By 1903, only approximately 500 Yavapai had survived the Yavapai Holocaust. [Yavapai source6

….

THE FORCED RELOCATION OF THE YAVAPAI
(An Event in the Yavapai Holocaust)
..

Sources for US genocide against the Yavapai and the Apache:
Yavapai source1Yavapai source2Yavapai source3 (pgs 41-103), Yavapai source6

Some Κnown Μassacres Αmong Μany in the US Genocide against the Yavapai:


SKULL VALLEY MASSACRE
[Entry 71]

1864
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Arizona

Massacre death toll: Unaccounted (men, women, children)
US soldier death toll: 0 or minimal

.                                                                                                     Description:

“A group of Yavapai families was lured into a trap and massacred by US soldiers under Lieutenant Monteith in a valley west of Prescott, Arizona. The place was named Skull Valley after the heads of the dead Indigenous people left unburied. [“Massacres”, Yavapai source2]


BLOODY TANKS MASSACRE
(a.k.a. PINOLE MASSACRE)
[Entry 72]

1864   
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Arizona

Massacre death toll: Approx. 30 (men)
US militia death toll: 1

.                                                                                                       Description:

A group of US settlers led by King S. Woolsey killed (and later scalped) approximately 30 Yavapai at a “peace parley”.

This was one of several massacres by death squad leader King Woolsey in the US-occupied Territory of Arizona. His death squads operated alongside US militia.

After the aforementioned massacre, that same year (1864), Woolsey was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel of the Arizona Militia by 1st  Arizona Governor (1863-1866) John N. Goodwin, as well as elected to the first Legislature of the US Territory of Arizona. He was re-elected to several subsequent legislatures.

[Sources: “…Massacres”, Yavapai source2Yavapai source3Yavapai source4 (pg 44)]


AQUARIUS MOUNTAINS MASSACRE
[Entry 73]

1867   
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Arizona

Massacre death toll: Approx. 23 (men, women, children)
US militia death toll: 0 or minimal

Description:

“Yavapai County Rangers killed 23 Indigenous people (men, women, and children) in the southern Aquarius Mountains, Arizona.” [“..Massacres”]




LA PAZ MASSACRE
[Entry 74]

24 September 1868   
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Arizona

Massacre death toll: Approx. 15 (men, possibly including women, children)
US death squad death toll: 0

Description:

A party of about 30 Yavapai, including the leader Quashackama, visited the US Government agent for Indigenous affairs (called “Indian agent“) at the US mining town of La Paz. They asked for food but were denied rations. They set up camp and waited for the arrival of the Superintendent.

At sunrise the next morning, a group of 13 US settler teamsters (wagon drivers) rushed into the Yavapai camp with guns blazing, while the people were sleeping. They murdered Quashackama and 14 others.

US Army officers and territorial officials arrested the teamsters, but a US district judge who was sympathetic to “Indian killers” set the murderers free. [Yavapai source1]

[“…Massacres”, Yavapai source1]


SKELETON CAVE MASSACRE
[Entry 75]

28 December 1872   
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Arizona

Massacre death toll: Approx. 80-100 (men, women, children)
US forces death toll: 0

Skeletal remains of men, women, and children who were massacred by the US Army at the “Skeleton Cave” on 28 December 1872. The bones remained undisturbed for 35 years. In January 1908, a rancher named Jeff (Jack in other accounts) Adams led a group of friends to the cave. They found it full of the skeletal remains of the massacred Yavapai people. They had a photographer named Lubken with them who took photos of the remains of at least 8 individuals and broken baskets, pottery, metates, hand-stones, fragments of clothing, leather, and blankets within the cave. Source (part 5)

Description:

Approximately 120 US soldiers and 100 “Indian scouts” (Indigenous mercenaries for the US Army), acting under orders from US Army General (1862-1890) George R. Crook, attacked a besieged band of approximately 100-110 Yavapai (men, women, and children) in a remote cave in Salt River Canyon.

An eyewitness account: There were, inside the cave, “men and women dead or writhing in the agonies of death, and with them several babies, killed by our war glancing bullets, or by the storm of rocks and stones”. — John Gregory Bourke (who had bee a US soldier at the massacre) [Yavapai source4 (pg 78), Yavapai source5 (part 4)]

Between approximately 76 to 90 Indigenous people were killed at the site.

“Eighteen women and children, all of whom were wounded, took cover under the bodies of the dead and survived. The army took the survivors, as prisoners, to Fort Grant.” [Yavapai source1] Some of the injured captives died afterwards.

There were no deaths among the attackers.

[Sources (for Skeleton Cave Massacre):
“…Massacres”, Yavapai source1Yavapai source2Yavapai source4 (pgs 78-80), Yavapai source5 (part 4)]  

A drawing of a memorial plaque. The memorial plaque, dedicated to the men, women, and children who died in the Skeleton Cave Massacre, is at the Fort McDowell Reservation. (Drawing by Luis Tomas in Arizona Highways magazine, May 1991)

One of the Massacres in the US Genocide against the Apache:

..


CAMP GRANT MASSACRE
[Entry 76]

30 April 1871
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Arizona

Massacre death toll:  Approx. 110-144
(approx. 8 men and 102-136 women and children)

US death squad death toll: 0

Description:

A death squad authorized by the Mayor of Tucson (1871-1873), Sidney R. DeLong, and organized by his close associate the ex-Mayor of Tucson (1864), William S. Oury, consisting of 6 other US settlers and approximately 150 Mexican and San Xavier Papago Indigenous mercenaries, launched a surprise dawn attack against a group of sleeping, defenseless Apache men, women, and children at Camp Grant (while most of the men were away hunting).

This Apache group was a disarmed group which had surrendered and entered into an agreement with the US Government and was supposedly under the protection of the US Army.

In a pre-meditated act of physical genocide and in a brief span of 30 minutes, the death squad killed between 110 to 144 people (all but 8 of them women and children). There was only 1 adult survivor left at the scene — a woman in shock. There were 27 to 29 children who were taken away and sold into slavery or servitude (probably in Mexico-jurisdiction territory). [“…Massacres”]

Later that year, a US federal grand jury indicted 104 persons (residents of Tucson and nearby San Xavier). Following a five-day trial in the Tucson courthouse in December 1871, the jury deliberated 19 minutes, and then the verdict was pronounced by the jury foreman, John B. Allen: “Not Guilty!” All 104 of the indicted persons were acquitted. The US Federal Government did not call any Apaches as witnesses. [source]

The next year, Mayor Sidney DeLong was re-elected to another one-year term as Mayor of Tucson. And the year after, William S. Oury was elected as Sheriff of Pima County (1873-1877) (the county the seat of which is the city of Tucson).

One hundred and twenty-five years after the Camp Grant Massacre, on 5 October 1996, approximately 80 US citizen residents of the state of Arizona travelled from Tucson to the San Carlos Reservation for a formal Tucson citizens’ apology to the Indigenous Peoples of the region. There were present many tribal elders from the San Carlos, White River Apache, Navajo, Hopi, and Desert Cahuilla (Chawilla) tribes. People representing the groups and families that were responsible for the massacre stood before the gathering, took responsibility for the slaughter, and begged forgiveness. [source]

——————————————————————————

V. LATE WESTERN AND GREAT PLAINS HOLOCAUST MASSACRES
[not including Texas, California, Arizona (previous distinct sections II, III, IV)]

1850-1890
Territory west of the Mississippi River

 [holocaust:
“destruction or slaughter on a mass scale” (Oxford Dictionaries)]




KLAMATH LAKE MASSACRE
(a.k.a. DOKDOKWAS MASSACRE)
[Entry 77]

12 May 1846
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Oregon

Massacre death toll: Over 20 (men, women, children)
US militia death toll: 0

Description:

An armed force under the command of US Army Captain John C. Frémont, including frontiersman Christopher H. (“Kit”) Carson, attacked a Klamath Tribe fishing village named Dokdokwas and completely destroyed the village, burning its approximately 50 houses to the ground and killing more than 20 men, women, and children of the village. The body of at least one woman (perhaps one who had attempted to escape) was witnessed lying dead in a canoe.  Recalling the destruction in his memory, Kit Carson said that the flaming village was “a beautiful sight”. [source3, pg 401] [Sources: source1, Wikipedia; source2source3 (pgs 400-401)]


FORT UTAH MASSACRES
[Entry 78]

(multiple massacres)

8-17 February 1850
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Utah

Massacre death toll: Over 100 (mostly men; women and children enslaved)
US militia death toll: 1

Description:

“[1st Governor of Utah (1851-1858)], Brigham Young, issued a partially extermination order of the Timpanogos Utes who lived in Utah Valley. In the north, the Timpanogos were fortified. However, in the south, the Mormon militia told them they were friendly before lining them up to execute them. Dozens of women and children were enslaved and taken to Salt Lake City, Utah, where many died.”    [“…Massacres”]


NASOMAH MASSACRE
[Entry 79]

28 January 1854
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Oregon

Massacre death toll: Approx. 16 (mostly men, and 1 woman)
US death squad death toll: 0 or minimal

Description:

“(Approx.) 40 US settlers attacked the sleeping village of the Nasomah Indigenous people at the mouth of the Coquille River in Oregon, killing (approx.) 15 men and 1 woman.” [“…Massacres”]


CHETCO RIVER MASSACRE (of 1853)
[Entry 80]

(related to multiple massacres against the Chettanne)

15 February 1853 and following days
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Oregon

Massacre death toll: At least 26 (men, some women, and possibly some children)
US militia death toll: 0 or minimal

Description:

The Chettanne People (which became referred to in English as the Chetco People) were once one of the largest tribes along the coast of the territory under present-day jurisdiction of the US state of Oregon. Before US settlers arrived, there were nine peaceful villages of the tribe on the “Chetco River” (US naming). In the US physical genocide against the Chettane (1853-1857), US settlers destroyed the Chettane villages.

In one of the attacks against the Chettane, US settlers led by A. F. Miller attacked a friendly Chettane village on the “Chetco River” in Oregon, setting the village on fire and shooting the villagers as they fled from their burning lodges. At least 26 people (mostly men, and some women) were killed on this day and the following days.

Two Chetco who tried to resist with bows and arrows were burned alive in their houses. Shortly before the attack, the Chettanne had been induced to give away their weapons as ‘friendly relations were firmly established’.

More massacres followed during the US Government’s ethnic cleansing military campaign in the region, known as the Rogue River Wars (phase 1855-1856). 

Three years following the Chetco River Massacre of 1853, the remnants of Chettanne were forcibly removed to a reservation. Miller continued to occupy the area until at least the 1870s.

Afterwards, the Chettane People became nearly extinct. The last known full-blooded Chettane person, Lucy Dick, died in 1940. As of 2016, only about 40 people remained who were known descendants of the Chettane. (source)

[“…Massacres”Chetco source 1Chetco source 2, Chetco source 3]


HARNEY MASSACRE
(a.k.a. ASH HOLLOW MASSACRE)
[Entry 81]

2 September 1855
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Nebraska

Massacre death toll: Approx. 86 (men, women, children)
US soldier death toll: Approx. 27

Description:

“US troops under Brigadier General William S. Harney killed (approx.) 86 Sioux, men, women and children at Blue Water Creek, in present-day Nebraska. About 70 women and children were taken prisoner.” [“…Massacres”]


LUPTON MASSACRE
[Entry 82]

8 October 1855
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Oregon

Massacre death toll: Approx. 23 (men, women, children)
US death squad death toll: 0

Description:

“A group of settlers and miners launched a night attack on an Indigenous village near Upper Table Rock, Oregon, killing 23 Indigenous people (mostly elderly men, women and children).” [“…Massacres”]


GRANDE RONDE RIVER VALLEY MASSACRE
[Entry 83]

June 1856
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Oregon

Massacre death toll: Approx. 60
(mostly women, children, and elderly men)

US soldier death toll: 0

 

Description:

“Washington Territorial Volunteers under Colonel Benjamin Shaw attacked a peaceful band of Cayuse and Walla Walla Indigenous people on the Grande Ronde River in Oregon. (Approx.) 60 Indigenous people, mostly women, children, and elderly men, were killed.” [“…Massacres”; More info: source]


FORT FAUNTLEROY MASSACRE
[Entry 84]

21 September 1861
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of New Mexico

Massacre death toll: 12 to 20 (men)
US soldier death toll: 0 or minimal

Description:

”US soldiers massacred between 12 and 20 Navajos at Fort Fauntleroy, following a dispute over a horse race.” [“…Massacres”]


DAKOTA 38 MASS EXECUTION
[Entry 85]

(greatest mass execution in US history)

26 December 1862
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Minnesota

Execution death toll: 38 (men)

A sketch depicting the mass public hanging execution of 38 Dakota Sioux men by the United States on 26 December 1862 . More than 4,000 people crowded the square where the hanging was done, cheering when the execution was done. An eyewitness description: “(The prisoners’) caps were now drawn over their eyes, and the halter placed about their necks. Several of them feeling uncomfortable, made severe efforts to loosen the rope, and some, after the most dreadful contortions, partially succeeded. The signal to cut the rope was three taps of the drum. All things being ready, the first tap was given,… (The prisoners) made such frantic efforts to grasp each other’s hands, that it was agony to behold them. Each one shouted out his name, that his comrades might know he was there. The second tap resounded on the air. The vast multitude were breathless with the awful surroundings of this solemn occasion. Again the doleful tap breaks on the stillness of the scene. Click! goes the sharp ax, and the descending platform leaves the bodies of thirty-eight human beings dangling in the air.” — New York Times article, shortly after the event (source

Description:

In 1862, there was a militant uprising by the Dakota Sioux against the US colonialist occupation of their homeland, known as the US-Dakota War (1862). The uprising ended in a Dakota surrender.

Afterwards, on the day after Christmas of that year, 38 Dakota men, convicted in unfair trials as accountable for the massacre of US settler noncombatants, were executed (by hanging) by order of 16th US President (1861-1865) Abraham Lincoln. This was the greatest mass execution in US history.

Following this mass execution, the Dakota people of several thousands were banished from their ancestral homeland in “Minnesota” territory, by order of Abraham Lincoln. They were forced to migrate to “Dakota” territory, “Montana” territory, or as far as “Manitoba” territory. Many died in US concentration camps or in the forced marches which followed.  

Sources (for Dakota 38 Mass Execution): D38 source 1, D38 source 2


BEAR RIVER MASSACRE
[Entry 86]

29 January 1863
Territory under present day occupation of US state of Idaho

Massacre death toll: Approx. 400 (men, women, children) [BRsource2]
US soldier death toll: Approx. 21

A US historical site sign at the site of the Bear River Massacre. The Bear River Massacre is believed to have had the highest death toll of men, women, and children (approx. 400) among the many specific US Military massacres throughout the collective territory occupied by the 48-state contiguous United States during the period of the US conquest (1776-1924).

Description:

US Army Colonel Patrick E. Connor led a US Army regiment of approximately 200 heavily armed US soldiers in a genocidal massacre against a Shoshone encampment near present-day Preston, US state of Idaho, killing most of the men, women, and children of the encampment.

The Shoshone began jumping into the freezing river in an attempt to escape, while the soldiers fired at them indiscriminately. A total of about 400 Shoshone people died in that massacre.

One survivor, Anzee Chee, was chased by soldiers, but was able to hide under a bank that overhung the river. She was wounded in the shoulder and chest and sufferred the loss of her infant child, who was thrown into the icy water to be drowned. [BRsource1]

In some cases, soldiers held the feet of infants by the heel and “beat their brains out on any hard substance they could find” [a practice US soldiers/militiamen during the 19th century called ”braining” (source)]… After having killed most of the men and many of children, soldiers assaulted and raped women… Women who resisted the soldiers were shot and killed… People who were found hiding in the shelters were killed… Wounded men, women, and children were shot, clubbed, and hacked to death. The soldiers burned down the encampment and supplies.

[Sources (for previous paragraph): (1) Wikipedia article (section “Massacre and actions of US soldiers“), reference: Christensen, Scott R., “Sagwitch: Shoshone Chieftain, Mormon Elder (1822–1887)”, Logan, Utah, Utah State University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-87421-271-5 (pg 52-55); (2) BRsource2]

[Sources (for Bear River Massacre):
Info resource: Wikipedia article; More sources: BRsource1, BRsource2]


WHITESTONE HILL MASSACRE
[Entry 87]

3 September 1863
Territory under present day occupation of US state of North Dakota   

Massacre death toll: Approx. 100-300 (men, women, children)
US soldier death toll: Approx. 22   

Description:

A 1,200-soldier US Army force consisting of soldiers from the Second Nebraska Cavalry, the Sixth Iowa Cavalry, and one company of the Seventh Iowa Cavalry, under the command of Brigadier General Alfred Sully, in an invasion ordered by General (1861-1867) John Pope, attacked and massacred a large Indigenous encampment of Yanktonai, Santee Dakota, and Teton (Lakota) [subgroups of the Sioux People], in what is now the extreme south-central portion of the territory of “North Dakota”.

They next day, the US soldiers burned down the encampment, burning about 300 tepees.

[source; info resource: Wikipedia article]

..


SAND CREEK MASSACRE
[Entry 88]

29 November 1864
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Colorado

Massacre death toll:
Between 150 and 200 (possibly more) (men, women, children) (SCsource)

US militia death toll: Approx. 24

A painting by Robert Lindneaux, depicting the surprise attack by US soldiers under Colonel John Chivington on 29 November 1864 at Sand Creek, at the start of the Sand Creek Massacre. The surprise dawn attack became a normal tactic of US armed forces and death squads in the US war of aggression and extermination against Indigenous Peoples of the Western supercontinent.

Description:

A Colorado Militia force led by Colorado Militia Colonel (1862-1865) John M. Chivington attacked a peaceful village of Cheyenne and Arapaho at Sand Creek in territory under present-day local jurisdiction of Kiowa County. The militia killed and mutilated the bodies of between 150 and 200 (possibly more) men, women, and children.

A painting depicting Indigenous men, women, and children running in an attempt to escape the genocidal massacre by US soldiers attacking them at their encampment at Sand Creek on 29 November 1864.

An eyewitness account: I saw the bodies of those lying there cut all to pieces, worse mutilated than any I ever saw before; the women cut all to pieces … With knives; scalped; their brains knocked out; children two or three months old; all ages lying there, from sucking infants up to warriors… [Their bodies were mutilated] by the United States troops…” — John S. Smith, Congressional Testimony of John S. Smith, 1865

No criminal charges were ever filed against Chivington or any of the officers who were under his command in the Sand Creek Massacre. During the final years of his lifetime, Chivington held office as Deputy Sheriff (1880s-1894) of Arapahoe County, Colorado.

Info resources: “…Massacres”, “Sand Creek Massacre”, Wikipedia
More information: SCsource, Encyclopedia Britannica


MUD LAKE MASSACRE
[Entry 89]

14 March 1865
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Nevada

Massacre death toll: Approx. 29 (men, women, children)
US soldier toll: 0

Description:

Approximately 50 US soldiers from the 1st Nevada Volunteer Cavalry Battalion, led by Captain Almond D. Wells, attacked a Paiute encampment near “Mud Lake” (sometimes called “Lake Winnemucca”) and killed approximately 29 people (women, children, and elderly men). The soldiers scalped at least half of the dead bodies (taking their scalps).   

The only survivor, Mary Winnemucca, one of the three daughters of Chief Winnemucca, escaped on a horse. According to the Mary’s eyewitness account as told by her sister Sarah WinnemuccaUS soldiers “took babies still tied in their baskets — and threw them into the flames to see them burn alive”.

Info resources: ”…Massacres”, ”Battle of Mud Lake”Wikipedia
More information: source (pgs 46-47)


GRASS VALLEY MASSACRE
[Entry 90]

(related to multiple massacres against the Ute People)

18 July 1865
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Utah

Massacre death toll: Over 10 (men, women, and children)
US militia death toll: 0

Description:

While searching for Antonga Black Hawk, a Utah Militia force of approximately 100 militiamen, led by Brigadier General Warren S. Snow, came upon a band of Ute people. Thinking they were part of Black’s Hawks band, they attacked them.

The Utah militiamen first killed approximately 10 men and boys and took the women and children captive. After the women and children tried to escape, the militia shot them too. Two residents managed to escape, and one very young boy who was found laying next to the dead body of his mother was taken custody. The militia then looted the camp of anything of value. [“…Massacres”; more info: source]

The Grass Valley Massacre was one of many genocidal massacres in the US genocide against the Ute and other Indigenous Peoples of the “Utah” territory. The Indigenous population of the territory was reduced from about 23,000 to about 10,000 in the 7-year period 1865-1872. [Wikipedia article]


CIRCLEVILLE MASSACRE
[Entry 91]

21 April 1866
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Utah

Massacre death toll: Approx. 16 (men and women)
US militia death toll: 0 or minimal

Description:

“Utah militiamen killed 16 Paiute men and women at Circleville, Utah. 6 men were shot, allegedly, while trying to escape. The others (3 men and 7 women) had their throats cut. 4 small children were spared.” [“…Massacres“]


WASHITA MASSACRE
[Entry 92]

27 November 1868
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Oklahoma

Massacre death toll: Over 140 (men, women, children)
US soldier death toll: Approx. 21 

Description:

Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer‘s 7th US Cavalry attacked a village of sleeping Cheyenne led by Black Kettle. Custer reported 103 – later revised to 140 – warriors, “some” women, and “few” children killed, and 53 women and children taken hostage. Other casualty estimates by cavalry members, scouts (Indigenous merceneries), and Indigenous people vary widely, with the number of men killed ranging as low as 11 and the numbers of women and children ranging as high as 75.

Before returning to their base, the cavalry killed several hundred ponies (held by the Cheyenne) and burned the village.

[“…Massacres”; Wikipedia article]


MARIAS MASSACRE
[Entry 93]

23 January 1870
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Montana

Massacre death toll: total (as result) Over 200 (men, women, children)
US soldier death doll: 1

Description:

Approximately 200 US soldiers, led by Major Eugene M. Baker, in an expedition under orders from General Philip H. Sheridan, attacked a peaceful Piegan encampment which had been promised safety by US Government officials. [To Sheridan has been attributed the statement, “The only good ‘Indian’ (referring to Indigenous people) is a dead Indian.”]

When the US soldiers approached, the chief of the camp, Heavy Runner, tried to calm his people and walked out in surrender, waiving a note of safe passage he had from the US Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). But he was shot to death, and a genocidal massacre followed. [Marias source2]  

“In those early morning hours, the [Indigenous] camp was unprotected as most of the men were out hunting. Bullets riddled the lodges, collapsing some into smoking fire pits and suffocating the half-awake victims. When the carnage was over, 173 lay dead — mostly women, children, and the elderly. 140 others were captured, later to be turned loose without horses [as the about 200 horses of the community were taken by the soldiers], adequate food, and clothing. As the refugees [some of whom were sick with smallpox] made their way to Fort Benton, some 90 miles [about 150 km] away, many of them froze to death.” [Marias source1]

One US soldier, Private Walton McKay, died in this act of genocide.

After the eastern US news media began to report on the incident, US Army General (1861-1884) William T. Sherman deflected a public inquiry by silencing the protests of agents in the BIA. An official investigation into the incident never occurred. [Marias source1]

[“…Massacres”; more sources: Marias source1, Marias source2]




CYPRESS HILLS MASSACRE
[Entry 94]

1 June 1873
Territory under present-day occupation of Canadian province of Saskatchewan

Massacre death toll: Approx. 23 (men, women, children)
US /Canadian perpetrator death toll: 1

Description:

“A party of 13 US and Canadian ‘wolfers’ (wolf hunters), fueled by a misunderstanding over missing horses and intoxicated on whiskey, committed a massacre against a small band of Nakota [a.k.a. Assiniboine (exonym)], killing approximately 23 Indigenous people (men, women, and children).

According to Clay Yarshenko, a heritage presenter at Fort Walsh: “(The perpetrators) clubbed to death the wounded, and some of the women were captured, and some of the men tormented them through the night.”

In the judicial case that followed, the US Government refused to extradite the US citizen perpetrators to Canada-jurisdiction territory to account for their act. A US court acquitted them, and the case was dropped.

[source; info resource: Wikipedia article]




SAPPA CREEK MASSACRE
[Entry 95]

23 April 1875
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Kansas

Massacre death toll: Over 27 (men, women, children)
US soldier death toll: 0

Description:

“Soldiers under US Army 2nd Lieutenant Austin Henley trapped a group of (more than) 27 Cheyenne (19 men, 8 women, and children) on the Sappa Creek, in Kansas, and killed them all.” [“…Massacres”]

Following the massacre (which was called a “battle”), Henley and his men were hailed as heroes, and eight soldiers were awarded the Medal of Honor (the USA’s highest military honor). The year after the massacre, Henley was promoted to the rank of 1st Lieutenant. [source]




BIG HOLE MASSACRE
[Entry 96]

8 August 1877
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Montana

Massacre death toll: Approx 89 (men, women, children)
US soldier death toll: Approx. 31

Description:

“US troops under Colonel John Gibbon attacked a Nez Perce village at Big Hole, in Montana Territory. They killed 89 men, women, and children before being repulsed by Indigenous warriors.” [“…Massacres”; Wikipedia article]




FORT ROBINSON MASSACRE
[Entry 97]

9-21 January 1879
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of Nebraska

Massacre death toll: Approx. 77 (men, women, children)
US soldier death toll: Approx. 11

Description:

“Northern Cheyenne people led by Morning Star [a.k.a. Dull Knife (Lakota Sioux name)] attempted to escape from confinement in Fort Robinson, Nebraska. US Army forces hunted them down, killing 77 of them. The remains of those killed were repatriated in 1994.”
[“…Massacres”; Wikipedia article]




BUFFALO GAP MASSACRE
[Entry 98]

10 December 1890
Territory under present-day occupation of US state of South Dakota

Massacre death toll: Over 50 (young men and women)
US militia death toll: 0 or minimal

Description:

“Several wagonloads of Sioux [young men and women from the Pine Ridge Reservation] were killed by South Dakota Home Guard militiamen [under the authority of, and organized by, 1st Governor of South Dakota (1889-1993), Arthur C. Mellette] near French Creek, South Dakota, while visiting a white friend in Buffalo Gap.” [“…Massacres“]

“The band had gone to Buffalo Gap to hunt at the ranch of a friendly white man they knew. They were greeted with a gun. They were unaware of the events that were transpiring around them. They sensed something wrong and attempted to leave. Because their horses were tired, they had to make camp between French Creek and Battle Creek. They were massacred in a surprise attack the next morning, December 10.” [source]


STRONGHOLD MASSACRE
[Entry 99]

16 December 1890
Pine Ridge Reservation

US Government “reservation” enclosed within territory
under present-day occupation of US state of South Dakota

Massacre death toll: Approx. 75 (men, women, children)
US militia death toll: 0 or minimal

Description:

South Dakota Home Guard militiamen [under the authority of, and organized by, 1st Governor of South Dakota (1889-1993), Arthur C. Mellette] initiated an attack on a Lakota Sioux encampment in the northern portion of Pine Ridge Reservation. The Lakota were lured into a well-planned militia ambush and massacred.  Approximately 75 Lakota were murdered. The South Dakota Home Guard then scalped the bodies of the massacred and plundered the belongings left behind.

[”…Massacres”; more sources: Stronghold source 1, Stronghold source 2]

Captain Riley Miller of Rapid City, South Dakota, with his various trophies of Sioux Indigenous relics removed from dead bodies of massacred Sioux people and from their plundered lodgings. Miller is surrounded by an Indigenous headdress, peace pipes, sacred shirts, beaded items, etc. (Photographer’s stamp on reverse “W. J. COLLINS”)

Two of the South Dakota militiamen at the Stronghold Massacre, Captain Riley Miller (the leader) and Frank Lockhart, went back to the crime scene with horse transport carriages and transported seven loads of plunder. Following the December 1890 massacres and plunders at Pine Ridge Reservation, Riley Miller toured many US cities with several hundred exhibits from the massacres/plunders and made a lot of money by displaying or selling the exhibits. [Stronghold source 2]

In partnership with Charles Bristol, many of those exhibits were displayed in a 500-piece museum exhibition at the World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893 (commemorating the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus’ voyage).

A top attraction in that exhibition was the dried corpse of an Indigenous infant who had died in infancy, with a billboard on top with the words, “Mummified Indian Papoose, the Greatest Curiosity Ever on Exhibition”. Was the infant, perhaps, one of those who died in the Wounded Knee Massacre?

[Stronghold source 2Stronghold source 3 (chapter “The Museum of Mankind”), Stronghold Source 4 (pg 2)]




WOUNDED KNEE MASSACRE

[Entry 100]

29 December 1890
Pine Ridge Reservation
US Government “reservation” enclosed within territory

under present-day occupation of US state of South Dakota

Massacre death toll: Approx. 200-300 (men, women, children)
US soldier death toll: Approx. 30 (many from “friendly fire”)

A photograph showing frozen bodies of the massacred lying on the snow-covered ground — five days following the Wounded Knee Massacre of 29 December 1890. A US military-escorted civilian burial party recovered some (approx. 150) of the bodies and threw them into a mass grave. Wounded Knee, 3 January 1891.

Description:
[more: Wounded Knee Massacre]

The Wounded Knee Massacre was a massacre committed by a nearly 500-soldier US Army detachment, led by Colonel (1886-1994) James W. Forsyth, against the Lakota (a.k.a. Teton) tribe of the Sioux Nation on 29 December 1890, targeting a band of the Miniconjou subtribe at an encampment near a small creek known to the Lakota as “Cankpe Opi Wakpala” (English, “Wounded Knee”), near the southern border of the Pine Ridge Reservation.

The US Army force, using the four Hotchkiss canon machine guns (positioned on the hill overlooking the camp) and using the soldiers’ rifles, began firing indiscriminately at the Lakota men, women, children, and infants… US soldiers hunted down escaping women and children as far as three kilometers (two miles) and mercilessly shot them dead.

“Right near the flag of truce a mother was shot down with her infant, the child not knowing that its mother was dead was still nursing… The women as they were fleeing with their babies were killed together, shot right through…”

— American Horse, Testimony to the US Commissioner of Indian Affairs,

11 February 1891

An eyewitness account: “The pitiful wailing cries of babies and children mixed with the dull explosions of the old fashioned Hotchkiss machine guns… as these big lead bullets smashed into the body of a baby or a child, arms and head all flying in different directions… The screams of mothers as machine gun bullets tore their bodies apart…”

— Hugh McGinnis (who had been a 20-year old soldier at the massacre),

his testimony to historian/writer Olive Glasgow, 1964-65

US Army soldiers posing for a photograph next to a mass grave. Approximately 150 bodies (possibly more) of Indigenous men, women, and children were buried in that mass grave by a US military-escorted civilian burial party, following the massacre at Cankpe Opi Wakpala (Wounded Knee). 3 January 1891 (Photo by Northwestern Photo Co.)

Despite the evidence of the official investigation ordered by superior commanding officer General (1867-1903) Nelson A. Miles, the top US political and military authorities suppressed an honest judgment, denied the crime, restored Forsyth to his command (and promoted him to Brigadier General in 1894 and Major General in 1897), and awarded approximately twenty Medals of Honor (the USA’s highest military honor) to soldiers who participated in the Wounded Knee Massacre.

[Sources: listed at Wounded Knee Massacre]

——————————————————————————


THE DENIAL OF ACCOUNTABILITY FOR GENOCIDE BY THE U.S. FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

To the present day as of the year 2018, the United States Federal Government (the US Government) denies that the political organization United States of America (USA, US) [founded 1776], as governed by the US Government, is accountable for genocide  against Indigenous Peoples of the Western Continent  [“the Americas” (European naming)].

In 2012, the US Senate rejected a resolution on the recognition of the US genocide. [source]

But I, the author of this report, ask every reader to examine the information here presented and judge the answer for oneself.

The question:
Is the United States accountable for genocide
against Indigenous Peoples of the Western Continent
within the territory under its jurisdiction?

UN/ICC Physical Genocide Definition

any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part,
a national, ethnical, racial, or religious group, as such:

(a) Killing members of the group
(b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group
(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part

______________________________________________________________

Home Page:

CRIMES OF THE U.S. GOVERNMENT:
From the Trail of Tears
to the Invasion of Iraq

______________________________________________________________

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