THE U.S. INVASION AND OCCUPATION OF HAWAII
By: Marc Immanuel
Published on: 17 June 2017
Until the US Government took possession of the Hawaiian Islands by force in 1892, the Hawaiian People were an independent people. In the Hawaiian language, the Hawaiian People, a Polynesian people, are known as the Kanaka Maoli.
THE U.S. GOVERNMENT CONSPIRACY TO ANNEX HAWAII
In 1892, the US Government under the Benjamin Harrison Administration secretly conspired with a small group of sugar and pineapple-growing businessmen in Hawaii (most of them of US citizenship or heritage) to overthrow the Kingdom of Hawaii in a coup d’etat.
The Kingdom of Hawaii (1795-1893) was an internationally-recognized sovereign nation-state. The Harrison Administration conspiracy’s goal was the annexation of Hawaii into the United States.
The US Government plan had the approval of US President (1889-1993) Benjamin Harrison and was organized, at the top, by US Secretary of State (1889-1892) James G. Blaine, US Secretary of the Navy (1889-1893) Benjamin F. Tracy, and US Minister [ambassador] to Hawaii (1889-1893) John L. Stevens. (source 7)
The local group of conspirators in Hawaii was headed by Lorrin A. Thurston and Sanford B. Dole — locals of Hawaii born of US citizen Protestant Christian missionary families who had immigrated to Hawaii from the northwest US mainland.
THE 1893 U.S. INVASION OF MARINES
AND THE OVERTHROW OF THE HAWAIIAN MONARCHY
The coup d’etat was executed on 16-17 January 1893. An initial US invasion force of about 200 fully-armed US Marines and Navy sailors from the US Navy ship USS Boston was ordered into Honolulu, capital of the Kingdom of Hawaii — to support the local coup organizers and their local (non-indigenous) militia of about 200 men in the carrying out of the coup.
[According to a New York Times article from 29 January 1893, the number of US Marines and Navy sailors who participated in the coup was “about 300”. According to the US Government (which gave an official number following an investigation), the number was “162”. (source, The Learning Network)]
After careful consideration, at the urging of advisers and friends, Hawaiian Queen Lili’uokalani ordered her forces to surrender, without a battle. The coup militia disarmed the Royal Guard and took over government buildings. Thereafter, the local coup organizers set up an oligarchic US puppet government with Sanford Dole as head of the government.
The US Government conspiracy with the local coup organizers was kept secret, and the overthrow of Hawaiian sovereignty was falsely presented to the international community as a Hawaiian “revolution” against the monarchy. In this way, an internationally-illegal US puppet oligarchy in Hawaii obtained international diplomatic recognition.
The secret involvement of the US Government in the conspiracy for the overthrow of Hawaiian independence remains covered up to the present day as of 2017.
THE 1898 FORMAL U.S. ANNEXATION OF HAWAII
Five years after the overthrow, in 1898, the Hawaiian Islands were officially annexed by the United States, along with about 1.8 million acres (7,300 km2) of Crown land that had legally belonged to the Kingdom of Hawaii.
In 1897, prior to the official annexation of Hawaii by the United States, the Indigenous (Native) Hawaiian community had submitted to the US Congress a 556-page petition with 21,269 signatures opposing annexation (the signatures numbering more than half of the Indigenous Hawaiian population of about 40,000). Petitions were also submitted to the US puppet government in Hawaii asking that annexation be put to a public vote.
The requests of the Indigenous Hawaiian community were denied by both the US Government and its puppet government in Hawaii.
In June-July 1898, the US Congress passed House Joint Resolution 259, 55th Congress, 2nd session (known as the “Newlands Resolution”), signed into law by US President (1897-1901) William McKinley on 7 July 1898 — approving the US annexation of Hawaii.
On 12 August 1898, a formal annexation ceremony was held outside the deposed monarchy’s Iolani Palace, in Honolulu. US troops from the US Navy ship USS Philadelphia came ashore and raised the Flag of the United States outside the deposed monarchy’s palace, while a band played the US national anthem, the Star-Spangled Banner.
Almost no Indigenous/Native Hawaiians attended the ceremony.
“We need Hawaii as much and a good deal more than we did California. It is Manifest Destiny.”
— US President William McKinley, 1898;
Remark to his personal secretary George Cortelyou;
advocating the annexation of Hawaii as a justified extension of US expansionism beyond the Western Continent [“America, the Americas” (European naming)”]
“Manifest Destiny” was the 19th and early 20th century US religious-nationalistic ideology which ”validated” US imperialist/colonialist expansionism as a “Divine Destiny” — even if acts of aggression, acts of physical and cultural genocide, and acts of ethnic cleansing were used as a means to bring about this ”Destiny”.
LOSS OF INDEPENDENCE OF THE HAWAIIAN PEOPLE,
AND FORCED ASSIMILATION POLICY BY THE U.S. GOVERNMENT
The Kanaka Maoli were forced to become, in their native ancestral homeland, a subject people under the military occupation of an expanding empire.
In 1896, the US occupational regime in Hawaii effectively banned the Hawaiian language from use in schools. Children were harshly punished for speaking Hawaiian in school. This policy following the model of the US forced assimilation policy toward Indigenous Peoples of US-occupied territory of the Western Continent. It was not until 1978 that the Hawaiian language was accorded the status of official language along with English. (source 8)
SOURCES OF INFORMATION
1. “Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii”,
Wikipedia, volunteer-written encyclopedia, article (historical)
2. “The Overthrow of the Monarchy”,
Hawaii-Nation.org, article (historical), by Pat Pitzer, May 1994
3. “The Hawaiian Situation: The Invasion of Hawaii”,
Digital History, article (historical), by Eugene T. Chamberlain, 1893
4. “A Historical Act of War: The Illegal Overthrow of the Hawaiian Nation”,
What Really Happened, article (historical), by Michael Rivero, 27 September 2008
5. “Hawai’i and Native Hawaiians – What You May Not Know”,
WanderWisdom, article (historical), by Stephanie Launiu, 3 August 2016
6. “The Overthrow: A Blow-by-Blow”,
the Umiverse, article (historical), 17 January 2005
7. “A Timeline of Revitalization“,
Aha Punana Leo, E Ola Ka Ólelo Hawaii’i (“The Hawaiian Language Shall Live”),
CRIMES OF THE U.S. GOVERNMENT
From the Trail of Tears
to the Invasion of Iraq
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