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● A GRADUAL, SYSTEMATIC, LONG-TERM (200-YEAR) GENOCIDE AGAINST INDIGENOUS PEOPLES (A.K.A. NATIVE PEOPLES) OF THE CONTINENT OF THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE [THE “WESTERN CONTINENT“, CALLED “AMERICA” (“THE AMERICAS”) (European naming)] —
specifically, against the Indigenous Peoples of the collective territory which was occupied by the United States through war of aggression (1776-1924) and became the territory under present-day occupation of the “contiguous United States” [the 48 adjoining US states in the Continent’s northern subcontinent (“North America”)]
(1776 – officially ended in 1978)
(as of 2017, UN/ICC genocide criteria (e)
had not yet been brought to a complete de facto end) Beginning soon after the arrival of initial European colonialist invasion leader Christopher Columbus to the Western Continent on 12 October 1492, and throughout the 16th through 20th centuries, the Indigenous Peoples of the Continent were subjected to genocide and crimes against humanity by various colonialist groups originating from the region “Europe” (European naming) in the Eastern Hemisphere. (sources: 1-5)
During that 500-year period, the Indigenous Peoples of the Western Continent — as a collective human category — were commonly referred to, based on an initial mistake, by the misnomer “Indians” by the European peoples.
The UN definition of ‘genocide’ (which is also the ICC definition in ICC Statute Article 6) — set on 9 December 1948 at the International Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide — is as follows:
any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial, or religious group, as such:
(a) Killing members of the group; (b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; (e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to anothergroup
During the approximately 200-year period between the founding of the United States (1776) and the enactment of Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) of 1978 — marking the de jure (legal) ending of the 200-year US genocide — the policy of the United States toward the Indigenous Peoples of the collective territory under present-day occupation of the 48-state contiguous United States met all five of the UN/ICC criteria for a definition of ‘genocide’.
UN/ICC genocide criteria (a), (b), (c)
(Acts aimed at physically destroying a group, in whole or in part)
The violent part – or ‘physical genocide’ [UN/ICC genocide criteria (a)-(b)-(c)] — of the US genocide against Indigenous Peoples of the Western Continent — consisted of continuous massacres of men, women, and children and destruction of Indigenous encampments/villages/towns and means of sustenance, in combination with forced relocations to US-designated “reservations”, for over 100 years (1776-1890).
That physical genocide was perpetrated by US federal, state, and county authorities and armed forces and by US citizen death squads (killing squads) with US federal and state support during the period of the US conquest of the portion of the Western Continent under present-day occupation of the 48-state contiguous United States.
UN/ICC Physical Genocide Definition:
any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part,
a national, ethnical, racial, or religious group, as such:
(a) Killing members of the group (b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part
An example of an act of physical genocide(specifically, genocide criterion (a),“killing members of the group”) committed by the United States against Indigenous Peoples of the Western Continent.
“The pitiful wailing cries of babies and children, mixed with the dull explosions of the old-fashioned Hotchkiss machine guns, rent [pierced through] the cold air. The sickening thuds as these big lead bullets smashed into the body of a baby or a child, arms and head all flying in different directions. The screams of mothers as machine gun bullets tore their bodies apart…”
— testimony by Hugh McGinnis
(who had been a 20-year old US soldier at the Wounded Knee Massacre)
PICTURE DESCRIPTIONS OF SEVEN GENOCIDAL MASSACRES
by US Armed Forces against Indigenous Peoples of the Western Continent (period 1776-1890):
GNADENHUTTEN MASSACRE (8 March 1782): During the US Revolutionary War (1775-1783), on 8 March 1782, a Pennsylvania Militia force of approximately 160 militiamen in an expedition ordered by Washington County Lieutenant (top county militia authority) James Marshel and led by Washington County Militia Lieutenant Colonel David Williamson, executed nearly 100 innocent captive Indigenous civilians (mostly of Lenape ethnicity). The militia bashed the people’s heads with a big mallet (big wooden hammer) [see painting] and then scalped them, one by one. The massacred villagers included approximately 35 children (including approximately 12 infants).
More information (and sources): Gnadenhutten Massacre __________________________________________________________________________
BAD AXE MASSACRE (2 August 1832): US Army forces led by US Army Brigadier General Henry Atkinson, US Army Brigadier General Alexander Posey, and US Army Major Henry Dodge, and a US state of Illinois militia force led by Illinois Militia officer Milton Alexander, massacred a band of Sauk and Meskwaki [a.k.a. Fox (exonym)] people led by Sauk leader and warrior Black Hawk, near present-day Victory, US state of Wisconsin. The US forces indiscriminately massacred most of the approximately 400 Indigenous people there, by the “Bad Axe River”. Most of the men, women, and children who tried to swim or canoe across the river were shot down or drowned. The US soldiers scalped most of the dead bodies (taking their scalps).
BLOODY ISLAND MASSACRE (15 May 1850): A detachment of US Army cavalry and a militia, led by Lieutenant Nathaniel Lyon and Lieutenant John W. Davidson, attacked and killed at least between 100 and 200 Pomo people — possibly more, according to various estimates — at an island encampment called “Badon-napo-ti“, or “Bo-no-po-ti” (Pomo naming, meaning “Old Island”), at the north end of a lake known to US settlers as “Clear Lake”, in territory under present-day local jurisdiction of Lake County.
The soldiers/militia indiscriminately shot and bayoneted to death the people who were there (mostly women, children, and elderly men). (BIsources 1, 2,3) (A bayonet is a knife sticking out of a rifle, which may be used to stab a person to death.) They bayoneted infants and small children and threw their bodies into the water. [BIsource2, details: BIsource4 (pg 53)] They picked up infants and smashed their heads against tree trunks (a practice US soldiers/militiamen during the 19th century called ”braining”). (BIsource1)
The US soldiers/militiamen murdered most of the people who were there, while they themselves suffered no injuries.
More information (and sources): Bloody Island Massacre
. BEAR RIVER MASSACRE
BEAR RIVER MASSACRE (29 January 1863): US Army Colonel Patrick E. Connor led a US Army regiment of approximately 200 heavily armed US soldiers in a genocidal massacre against a Shoshone encampment near present-day Preston, US state of Idaho, killing most of the men, women, and children of the encampment. The Shoshone began jumping into the freezing river in an attempt to escape, while the soldiers fired at them indiscriminately. A total of about 400 Shoshone people died in that massacre.
In some cases, soldiers held the feet of infants by the heel and “beat their brains out on any hard substance they could find” [a practice US soldiers/militiamen during the 19th century called ”braining” (BIsource1)]… After having killed most of the men and many of children, soldiers assaulted and raped women… Women who resisted the soldiers were shot and killed… People who were found hiding in the shelters were killed… Wounded men, women, and children were shot, clubbed, and hacked to death. The soldiers burned down the encampment and supplies.
Info resource: “Bear River Massacre”, Wikipedia (section “Massacre and actions of US soldiers“), reference: Christensen, Scott R., “Sagwitch: Shoshone Chieftain, Mormon Elder (1822–1887)”, Logan, Utah, Utah State University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-87421-271-5 (pgs 52-55); More sources: BRsource1, BRsource2]
SAND CREEK MASSACRE
SAND CREEK MASSACRE (29 November 1864): A Colorado Militia force led by Colorado Militia Colonel (1862-1865) John M. Chivington, attacked a peaceful village of Cheyenne and Arapaho at Sand Creek in territory under present-day local jurisdiction of Kiowa County. The militia killed and mutilated the bodies of between 150 and 200 (possibly more) men, women, and children.
An eyewitness account: “I saw the bodies of those lying there cut all to pieces, worse mutilated than any I ever saw before; the women cut all to pieces… With knives; scalped; their brains knocked out; children two or three months old; all ages lying there, from sucking infants up to warriors… [Their bodies were mutilated] by the United States troops…” — John S. Smith, Congressional Testimony of John S. Smith, 1865
SKELETON CAVE MASSACRE (28 December 1872): Approximately 120 US soldiers and 100 “Indian scouts” (Indigenous mercenaries for the US Army), acting under orders from US Army General (1862-1890) George R. Crook, attacked a besieged band of approximately 100-110 Yavapai (men, women, and children) in a remote cave in Salt River Canyon, territory under present-day occupation of US state of Arizona.
An eyewitness account: There were, inside the cave, “men and women dead or writhing in the agonies of death, and with them several babies, killed by our war glancing bullets, or by the storm of rocks and stones”. — John Gregory Bourke (who had been a US soldier at the massacre) [Sk-source3 (pg 78), Sk-source4 (part 4)]
Between approximately 76 to 90 Indigenous people were killed at the site. “Eighteen women and children, all of whom were wounded, took cover under the bodies of the dead and survived. The army took the survivors, as prisoners, to Fort Grant.” (Sk-source1). Some of the injured captives died afterwards. There were no deaths among the attackers.
WOUNDED KNEE MASSACRE (29 December 1890): The Wounded Knee Massacre, in which a total of between 200 and 300 (according to most estimates) Indigenous men, women, and children died, was the last large-scale genocidal massacre in a continuous series of hundreds of genocidal massacres (period 1776-1890) by the United States against Indigenous Peoples of the collective territory under present-day occupation of the 48-state contiguous United States.
“Right near the flag of truce a mother was shot down with her infant, the child not knowing that its mother was dead was still nursing… The women as they were fleeing with their babies were killed together, shot right through…” — American Horse, Testimony to the US Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 11 February 1891.
The US Government awarded approximately 20 Medals of Honor (the USA’s highest military honor) to soldiers who participated in that genocidal massacre. (source)
UN/ICC genocide criterion, (c)
Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to
bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part
● FORCED RELOCATION TO US-DESIGNATED “RESERVATIONS” – AS A MEANS OF ETHNIC CLEANSING – OF THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLES of the collective territory under present-day occupation of the 48-state contiguous United States [codified into federal law in 1830 through the Indian Removal Act, signed on 28 May 1830 by 7th US President (1829-1837) Andrew Jackson (nicknamed “Indian Killer” by Indigenous Peoples; founder of US Democratic Party in 1828; featured by US Government on front side of US twenty-dollar bill since 1928)] (sources: 31-34)
(1776 – completed by 1890)
[crime against humanity, ICC Statute, Article 7 (1) (d): “deportation or forcible transfer of population”;
and genocide, ICC Statute, Article 6: “intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial, or religious group, as such — by genocide criterion c: “deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part”]
Sources (for forced relocations of Indigenous Peoples): 31 to 39 . THE “TRAIL OF TEARS”
The “Trail or Tears” refers: (1) in its general reference, to a series of forced or coerced relocations, between 1830 and 1850, of the Indigenous Peoples of the Southeast of the territory under present-day occupation of the 48-state contiguous United States, or (2) in its specific reference, to the forced relocation of the Cherokee Nation during 1836-1839. [I recommend specifying definition (2) as the Cherokee Trail of Tears.]
THE OVERALL TRAIL OF TEARS
(The forced relocation of Indigenous nations of the territory that became the “Southeast” of the contiguous United States):
Following the US Government’s enactment of the Indian Removal Act on 28 May 1830, most of the Indigenous Peoples of the territory which became the Southeast of the contiguous United States – including the Chahta (Choctaw), the Muskokee (Muscogee), the Chikasha (Chickasaw), the Seminole, and the Cherokee Nations – were forced or coerced (involving the threat of force) to leave their ancestral homelands and migrate to US-designated “Indian Territory” west of the Mississippi River. That very difficult journey, which thousands of Indigenous persons did not survive, is known as the “Trail of Tears”. (sources: 35-37)
Their removal gave 25 million acres (more than 100,000 km2) of land to US colonialist settlement and to slavery. (source)
THE CHEROKEE TRAIL OF TEARS
(The forced relocation of the Cherokee Nation):
The phrase “Trail of Tears” originated from a description of the removal the Cherokee Nation. Over 16,000 Cherokees were forced or coerced to migrate from their ancestral homeland between 1836 and 1839.
Most Cherokees refused to move. On 26 May 1838, US Army and US state of Georgia Militia forces totalling about 7,000 soldiers, under the command of US Army General (1814-1861) Winfield Scott, began to round up the Cherokees and imprison them in rat-infested US Army concentration camps to await removal (while their homes were plundered by US citizen civilians). The Cherokees spent three to four months in the camps without adequate food or water or proper sanitation. Many died in the concentration camps as they waited.
US soldiers then accompanied the Cherokees as they travelled about 2,000 kilometers (about 1,200 miles) westward. Most made the journey on foot. Suffering from exposure, disease, and starvation while on route, many died during the journey.
During the 1836-1839 Cherokee removal, about 25 percent of the removed population – about 4,000 people (according to the most cited scholarly estimates) — died.
The overall death toll of the US forced relocations of Indigenous populations throughout the contiguous United States reached far into the thousands.
Indigenous population approaching extinction by 1900:
By 1900, the population of Indigenous Peoples throughout the collective territory under present-day occupation of the 48-state contiguous United States had decreased to about 250,000 people [approaching extinction (probably not more than 5% of the original population size prior to the beginning of the European invasion by Spanish colonialist forces in the early 16th century)].
Thereafter, genocide in the form of genocidal massacres, forced migrations, imposed starvation or malnourishment, enslavement, etc. (physical genocide) came to an end. But the ends of genocide continued to be promoted throughout most of the 20th century in the northern subcontinent of the Western Continent by US and Canadian authorities through other means (of biological and cultural genocide). (sources: 6-8)
UN/ICC genocide criteria (d) and (e)
(Acts aimed at preventing the reproduction of a group as a group)
During the mid-to-late 20th century, the US Government implemented programs of ‘biological genocide’ against non-“white” (non-“European”-origin) minority populations throughout the Western Continent.
UN/ICC genocide criterion, (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group
During the 1960s and 1970s, throughout the collective territory under present-day occupation of the 49-state continental United States (including the state of Alaska), the US Government implemented a program of mass surgical sterilizationof Indigenous women (usually without the informed consent of the women).
A 1974 study by Women of All Red Nations (WARN) concluded that as many as 42 percent of all Indigenous women of childbearing age in territory under present-day occupation of the 49-state continental United States had, by that point, been sterilized without their informed consent.
This policy was part of a wider abusive US population control policy (1920s -1970s) targeting non-“white” (non-“European”-origin) minority populations – specifically, Indigenous, “black” (“African”-origin), and mixed-origin “Hispanic/Latino” populations – inside US-occupied territory of the Western Continent (including the territories of Puerto Rico and Alaska) and sometimes extending to outside US-occupied territory of the Western Continent. (sources: 17, 18)
UN/ICC genocide criterion, (e) . Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group
According to a 1976 report by the Association on American Indian Affairs: As many as one-third of Indigenous children in US-occupied territory of the northern subcontinent of the Western Continent were separated from their families between 1941 and 1967, and approximately 85% of those children were placed in non-Indigenous homes or institutions. (sources: 20-23)
The continuing de facto policy (as of 2017) of genocide criterion (e):
According to a 2015 report by The Guardian: Despite the ICWA’s intentions, the removal rate of all Indigenous children throughout US-occupied territory increased to 35% over the following decade (1980s), with approximately 85% of those children placed in non-Indigenous homes or state foster care placements.
In recent years as of 2017, the US state with the worst record on ICWA enforcement is the state of South Dakota. As of 2015, in territory under South Dakota jurisdiction, Indigenous children accounted for 13.8 percent of the state’s child population, yet they represented 56.3 percent of the foster care population. (sources: 22, 23)
. Forced or Coerced Transfer of Indigenous Children . to US Government-Funded “Boarding Schools” .(Forced Assimilation Institutions):
Beginning in the 1860s, the US Government, using force and coercion, began removing Indigenous children from their families and Indigenous communities in US-occupied territory and transferring them to US Government-funded, Government-run or church-run forced assimilation institutions.
At the institutions, the Indigenous children were forbidden to speak their native languages (upon threat of punishment) and forced to abandon their native names, appearance, clothing, religion, culture, diet, etc. Their education aimed at the complete destruction of their native culture (‘cultural genocide’).
(for US Government cultural genocide against Indigenous Peoples):
26 to 29 .______________________________________________________
In 2012, the US Senate rejected a resolution on the recognition of the US genocide against Indigenous Peoples of the territory under present-day occupation of the 48-state contiguous United States. (source 30)
(for US Government genocide and forced relocations
against Indigenous Peoples of the Western Continent):
1 to 38
● ACTS OF GENOCIDE AGAINST PEOPLES OF THE GENERAL REGION “ASIA” [European naming] (OF THE EASTERN, SOUTHEASTERN, SOUTHWESTERN, AND CENTRAL SUBREGIONS OF THE REGION “ASIA”, IN THE EASTERN HEMISPHERE) —
Peoples of the Philippine Islands, of the Island of Japan, of the Korean Peninsula, of Southeast Asia [territories of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, and (indirectly) Indonesia], of Southwest Asia [mostly territories of Iraq and (indirectly) Palestine], and of Central Asia [mostly territory of Afghanistan].
East-Southeast Asia (first genocidal massacre in 1832 at Kuala Batu, Indonesia; widespread acts of genocide during 1899-1913 and 1943-1973):
The US Government’s widespread acts of genocide against Peoples of East-Southeast Asia began in 1899 during the US Military invasion of the Philippine Islands. Widespread acts of physical genocide continued through the massive US Military war crimes against the Peoples of the Island of Japan, the Peninsula of Korea, and Southeast Asia during the 30-year period 1943-1973. Southwest Asia (Middle East) and Central Asia:
The US Government’s acts of genocide in Southwest Asia (a.k.a. the Middle East) and Central Asia here refer to:
(1) direct acts of physical genocide through catastrophic wars, war crimes, and sanctions (in the case of Iraq) — affecting primarily the Peoples of Iraq territory (since 1991, as of 2018), Afghanistan territory (since 2001 as of 2018), and Syria territory (since 2014, as of 2018);
(2) indirect involvement in acts of physical genocide through support of governments or militant organizations directly committing the acts [for a primary example: support of the Israeli Government’s genocidal massacres in “Palestine” (original regional definition) since 1948].
[The US Government’s incurring of direct and/or indirect accountability for genocidal massacres (officially referred to by the US Government/Military as “collateral damage” since the 1991 Persian Gulf War) against Peoples of Asia continues as of 2018.]
[The direct US acts of genocide in Japan, the Korean Peninsula, and Southeast Asia (period 1943-1973), and in Southwest and Central Asia (period 1991 – continuing as of 2018), consisting mostly of indiscriminate aerial bombardment and/or other use of military force, are described in Section 4(US Government War Crimes).]
During the 14-year period of the US war of conquest in the Northern and Southern “Philippine Islands (Philippines)” (European colonialist naming) (1899-1913) — especially during the initial 4-year period (1899-1903) — US invasion and occupation forces perpetrated the following crimes (amounting, under contemporary UN/ICC definitions, to genocide, crimes against humanity, crimes of aggression, and war crimes):
● destroying and burning of whole cities and villages (sources: 41, 42)
● mass extermination of men, women, and children (sources: 41, 42) ● imprisoning whole populations in concentration camps under overcrowded and unsanitary conditions (where mass starvation and disease epidemics caused mortality rates of up to 20%) (sources: 41, 42) ● massacres of prisoners and civilians (sources: 41, 42)
● interrogations involving torture, beatings, and killings of civilians (sources: 41, 42)
● a total death toll of more than 1 million men, women, and children throughout the Islands as a result of the US war and physical genocide (sources: 41, 42)
● cultural genocide policies during US occupation (1899-1946), involving, among others, the “destruction of the specific character of a persecuted group by forced transfer of children, forced exile, prohibition of the use of the national language, destruction of books, documents, monuments, and objects of historical, artistic, or religious value.” [sources: 41 (section, “Civilizing Holocaust”), 42 (section, “The Process of Americanization of the Philippines”)]
Below video (approx. 5 minutes, published by Compact Jam on 17 Nov. 2012):
Describes the US genocide in the “Philippines”
[Correction at 0:12 (beginning) of video: A caption incorrectly displays the year of the initial US invasion as 1889. The year of the initial US invasion was 1898. US war against the Peoples of the ”Philippines” began on 4 February 1899.]
BUD DAHU MASSACRE (a.k.a. “MORO CRATER MASSACRE”)
(7-8 March 1906) [an act of physical genocide]:
During 5-8 March 1906, about 750 US Army and Marine soldiers under the command of US Army Colonel J. W. Duncan, and under orders by US Army Major General and Governor of Moro Province, Leonard Wood, assaulted the volcanic crater (of an extinct volcano) of Bud Dahu (also transliterated as Bud Daju), a mountain on the island of Jolo, Southern “Philippines”. Between 600 and 1,600 villagers (according to various estimates) of the Tausug subgroup of the Bangsamoro (a.k.a. “Moro”) ethnic group (traditionally of Muslim religion), including hundreds of women and children, were taking refuge inside the crater.
The US Military force, using artillery, machine gun, and rifle fire, massacred all the villagers inside the crater, including all the women and children. Very few of the Tausug villagers survived the massacre. (Estimates of the Tausug death toll have ranged from lowest estimates of 600 to highest estimates of 1,600.)
Eyewitnesses reported that corpses were piled five feet (1.5 meters) deep, and many of the bodies were wounded multiple times (many with as many as 50 wounds). The US Military authorities censored the telegrams from Jolo describing the casualties. About 20 US soldiers died and between about 50 and 75 soldiers were wounded during the assault.
●FORCED RELOCATION OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLES OF COLLECTIVE TERRITORY OF 48-STATE CONTIGUOUS UNITED STATES — FORCED CONFINEMENT TO U.S.-DESIGNATED “RESERVATIONS”
(THE COLLECTIVE FORCED RELOCATIONS OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLES)
(carried out during 1776-1890)
[crime against humanity, ICC Statute, Article 7 (1) (d): “deportation or forcible transfer of population”;
and genocide, ICC Statute, Article 6: “intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial, or religious group, as such — by genocide criterion c: “deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part”]
Full information, at: Section 1 (Genocide): Physical Genocide: Genocide Criterion (C): Forced or Coerced Relocation… of Indigenous Peoples…
● U.S. GOVERNMENT TWO-CENTURY OFFICIAL WHITE SUPREMACISM (1776-1965), EXPRESSED AS (1) ONE CENTURY OF SUPPORT OF CHATTEL SLAVERY OF PRIMARILY BLACK AS WELL AS INDIGENOUS PEOPLE (1776-1865) AND (2) ONE CENTURY OF SUPPORT OF U.S. APARTHEID AGAINST PRIMARILY BLACK AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLE (1865-1965)
For nearly 200 years (1776-1965), the United States was officially a racist, white supremacist State. [White supremacismis a racist ideology centered upon the belief, and the promotion of the belief, that “white” people (implying, people with primary genetic origin of the “white”-skinned or European-origin subgroup of the human species) are superior in certain characteristics, traits, and attributes to people of other racial backgrounds and that therefore white people should politically, economically, and socially rule non-white people.]
(1) NEARLY ONE CENTURY OF U.S. GOVERNMENT SUPPORT OF CHATTEL SLAVERY (1776-1865) [excluding the US Republican Party — which was anti-slavery since its foundation in 1854 and, in its original form (1850s-1870s), brought about the abolition of chattel slavery in 1865 and the initiation of US civil rights reform] In contradiction to the 1776 US Declaration of Independence (which was justified on the fundamental premise that “all human beings are created equal…”), the original 1787 US Constitution (which in 1789 became the legal foundation of the US Federal Government) legalized the enslavement of black persons by the newly-federalized United States.
Between 1789 and 1865, black persons [and mixed-origin black-white persons born of black or mixed-origin enslaved women raped by white slaveholders (source 46)] were, based on their genetic origin, legally subject to enslavement under then-US Federal law.
CONTINUED LEGAL ENSLAVEMENT OF PRISONERS UNDER U.S. JURISDICTION (1776 – continuing as of 2018)
However, prison slavery(called “penal labor“) was not abolished by the Thirteenth Amendment. (source)
Forced child labor of Indigenous children: The US Government-led occupation throughout the territory of the 49-state contiguous United States imposed partial slavery on Indigenous children who had been taken from their Indigenous communities and forced into the US Government’s boarding school assimilation system. (source, section “Forced Labor”).
During the US Military occupation of Haiti (1914-1934), the US Military enslaved a portion of the black Haitian population. (source)
As of 2018, widespread enslavement of prisoners of the US penal system continues throughout territory under US Government jurisdiction (source). [As of 2011, the United States held about 25% of the world’s prisoners.] (source)
(2) ONE CENTURY OF U.S. GOVERNMENT SUPPORT OF U.S. APARTHEID
(1865-1965) [by both the US Democratic Party and the US Republican Party]
Following the abolition of non-white chattel slavery in 1865, non-white persons (especially black persons and indigenous persons) residing in US-occupied territory were not recognized as equal human persons deserving of equal rights under US law for another whole century [not until the enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968 (following the success of the civil rights movement led by Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.)].
During the 100-year period 1865-1965, the United States continued to be an officially racist State, with racism being one of the motivating factors in various US crimes against non-white populations throughout the world and in the subjecting of primarily the black population and indigenous populations within US-occupied territory to various forms of apartheid.
[crime against humanity, ICC Statute, Article 7 (1)(j): “apartheid”]
Under current international law, ‘apartheid’ [as defined in ICC Statute, Article 7 (2) (h)], is defined as: ”an institutionalized regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial group over any other racial group or groups and committed with the intention of maintaining that regime”.
Sources (for US Government support of slavery and apartheid):
45 to 53
● TORTURE AND SUPPORT OF TORTURE,
ALL THROUGHOUT U.S. GOVERNMENT HISTORY
1789-2015 (support of governments which commit torture had not come to a complete de facto end as of 2018)
All forms of torture or abuse of any prisoners or detainees under US jurisdiction are a violation of the 1791 Eighth Amendment to the US Constitution, banning all “cruel and unusual punishments”, without any exception mentioned. [more info, Police State USA]
Despite the US Constitution, the US Federal Government has been accountable for torture and abuse of prisoners (directly through its military, law enforcement, and intelligence agencies) and/or for supporting and enabling torture and abuse of prisoners (by supporting authorities committing torture) all throughout its existence (1789 — support of authorities committing torture had not come to an end as of 2018).
Note: Torture of prisoners of war under the jurisdiction of a state military or non-state militant force is classified as a war crime. (In order to list various historical accounts of US torture in a single listing, this report lists US war crime torture together with US crimes against humanity torture within the crimes against humanity category.)
— Torture of enslaved persons during the age of US slavery (1776-1865):
Alongside slavery, use of torture [a crime against humanity, ICC Statute, Article 7 (1) (f)] against enslaved persons was also ”legal”. Enslaved persons were legally punished by whipping, beating, shackling (chaining a person), mutilation, and branding (engraving a mark with an iron) [punishments amounting to torture]. Enslaved persons were also legally punished by unjustified imprisonment [a crime against humanity, ICC Statute, Article 7 (1) (e)]. Enslaved females were also legally punished by sexual assault [a crime against humanity, ICC Statute, Article 7 (1) (g)]. Punishment was most often in response to disobedience or perceived violations of rules, but masters or overseers sometimes abused slaves to assert dominance. (sources 54-56)
— Torture in early US policing (1830s–1930s)/
abuses of domestic prisoners and detainees to the present day
(1930s — had not come to a complete de facto end as of 2018)
The use of “third degree interrogation” techniques [a euphemism for ‘torture’ (“inflicting of pain, physical and/or mental, to extract confessions or statements”)], ranging from “psychological duress such as prolonged confinement to extreme violence and torture”, was widespread and considered acceptable in early US policing [law enforcement]. Widespread use of torture by US police declined in the 1930’s and 1940’s (following the Wickersham Commission’s “Report on Lawlessness in Law Enforcement” in 1931). Some amount of torture and/or abuse of prisoners and detainees in domestic prisons and by US police officers has continued to the present day as of 2018. [sources 54 (section ”Domestic Police and Prisons”), 58]
— Torture by the US Military in the Philippines (1899-1913):
Following the US Military invasion of the “Philippine Islands (Philippines)” (European colonialist naming) in 1898-99, and during the US war of aggression against the Peoples of the ”Philippines” (1899-1913), the US Military tortured people held as prisoners. A widespread torture method used during interrogation of prisoners was an early form of waterboarding (called “water cure”).
— Torture by the US Military in Haiti (1915-1934)
“I have seen prisoners’ faces and heads disfigured by beatings administered to them and have heard [US Military] officers discussing those beatings; also a form of torture… in which the victim’s leg is compressed between two rifles and the pressure against the shin [front part of the leg from the knee to the ankle] increased until agony forced him to speak. I know that men and women have been hung by the neck until strangulation impelled them to give information.”
— Herbert J. Seligmann,
US citizen journalist testifying about what he witnessed in Haiti, 10 July 1920 article in The Nation,
during the early years of the US Military occupation of Haiti (1915-1934)
Torture of Haitian prisoners of war by US Marines was common practice. (source 110, “1915-1934”)
— Torture and support of torture throughout the world during the “Cold War”
US Government military forces and US Government-backed death squads and right-wing militias, throughout various regions of the Planet, routinely tortured and assassinated dissidents as part of their effort to defeat “communism”.
US citizen lawyer, author, and human rights activist, Jennifer Harbury, following an investigation into the issue of torture, focusing on the isthmian portion of the Western Continent (”Central America”, European naming), concluded that: “The CIA and related US intelligence agencies have, since their inception, engaged in the widespread practice of torture, either directly or through well-paid proxies.” (source 59, ch 2, pg 29)
Project MK-Ultra: “In 1953, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) established the MK-Ultra program, whose earliest phase involved hypnosis, electroshock, and hallucinogenic drugs. The program evolved into experiments in psychological torture that adapted elements of Soviet and Chinese models, including longtime standing, protracted isolation, sleep deprivation, and humiliation. Those lessons soon became an applied ‘science’ in the Cold War.” (source, The Nation; more information: source 61, Interference)
Sources (for US Government torture during period 1947-1991):
57 to 61
— Torture under the George W. Bush Administration (2001–2009):
In 2002, the George W. Bush Administration [to be abbreviated, the Bush II Admin.], in violation of the US Constitution’s Eighth Amendment, of the 1994 US Torture Act, and of all international law, officially sanctioned systematic torture of prisoners of war under US military and intelligence agency jurisdiction.
“…The pictures show only five percent of what happened to us.” — Ali Shallal al-Qaisi, an Iraqi citizen imprisoned at Abu Ghraib prison during 2003-2004, interview, al-Araby al-Jadeed (The New Arab), published 27 November 2015
It is because the Abu Ghraib prison photos were taken and some leaked to the media (in 2004) that US Government, Military, CIA, and private contractor torture and abuses at Abu Ghraib and throughout the world became exposed to the world.
As a public pretense of “justice”, 11 low-ranking US soldiers were convicted in US military trial and received criminal penalties (most of which were minor penalties) for the Abu Ghraib war crimes and crimes against humanity. Not coincidentally, no one in the higher positions of the US Military, CIA, PMCs, or in the US Government, was investigated or indicted.
Call by the UN Special Rapporteur on Counter-Terrorism and HumanRights:
(9 December 2014)
“As a matter of international law, the US is legally obliged to bring those responsible to justice. The US Attorney General is under a legal duty to bring criminal charges against those responsible.”
— United Nations Special Rapporteur on Counter-Terrorism and Human Rights (2011-2017), Ben Emmerson, 9 December 2014 (date of release of Torture Report) (source, Reuters)
IMPUNITY FOR U.S. TORTURERS (continuing policy as of 2018) —
The refusal of the US Justice Department to bring to justice
US officials accountable for the Bush II Admin. torture program:
The day after the release of the Torture Report, on 10 December 2014, despite the evidence of crimes committed, the US Justice Department, headed by 82nd US Attorney General (2009-2015) Eric H. Holder, Jr, stated that the Justice Department does not plan to initiate any criminal investigations as a result of the Torture Report. US law enforcement sources said that if another nation-state files an arrest warrant for a US official related to the CIA program, the Justice Department will not enforce it. (source 66, CNN Library)
The head of State at the time, 44th US President (2009-2017) Barack H. Obama, agreed to that policy of impunity for officials (former or current) of the US Government charged with serious violations of national and international law.
KUALA LUMPUR WAR CRIMES COMMISSION (KLWCC) CONVICTS FORMER U.S. PRESIDENT GEORGE W. BUSH and seven leading former officials of the Bush Administration for war crimes:
On 12 May 2012, after hearing testimony for a week from victims of torture at Abu Ghraib and Guantanamo prisons, the Kuala Lumpur War Crimes Commission (KLWCC)) unanimously convicted in absentia the following former Bush II Admin. officials forconspiracy to commit war crimes(specifically torture). (source, Foreign Policy Journal)
According to both contemporary US law and contemporary UN international law: All of the aforementioned former top officials of the Bush II Admin., as well as several more, along with former top officials of the US Military and the CIA and top shareholders and executives of US Government-contract corporations such as CACI and Titan Corp. during the Bush II Admin., share legal accountability in the planning and implementing of a worldwide systematic torture regime during the period 2001-2009.
Sources (for US Government torture during George W. Bush Administration):
61 to 66
— Torture under the Barack Obama Administration (2009-2017) (torture by proxy):
In a 2009 executive order, 44th US President (2009-2017) Barack H. Obama officially banned the use of torture by the US Military, CIA, and US Government-contract corporations, leading to the subsequent closing of CIA black sites. In 2015, the US Government ban on torture (as well as cruel or degrading treatment or punishment) was codified into law by the Detainee Treatment Act.
However, as of 2018, the Guantanamo torture prison remains open, despite Obama’s 2007-2008 presidential campaign pledge to close it. During the Obama Administration, torture continued at Guantanamo prison in the form of nasogastric tube force-feeding(force-feeding by tube inserted into the nasal passage) of hunger-striking prisoners.
“We’re going to close Guantanamo.”
— US Senator Barack Obama during his 2007-08 campaign for US presidency,
24 June 2007 (source, The Atlantic) Also, since 2009 and as of 2018, the US Military and CIA have continued to be involved in torture — mostly indirectly (torture by proxy) — in locations under official jurisdiction of US puppet governments around the world. (sources 58, 67)
The below video (approx. 2 minutes), published in November 2013, shows one example of indirect US torture. It shows US-allied Afghan military personnel and interpreters interrogating and torturing a prisoner by whipping as US commandos watched. Investigative reporter Matthieu Aikins obtained the video whilst working on an investigation into alleged US war crimes for Rolling Stone magazine. The Rolling Stone published Aikins’ long, investigative article about 10 Afghans who were kidnapped and tortured by US special operations forces, with Afghan interpreters at their side, in the fall of 2012. (source 58)
“…I would bring back waterboarding [a torture method using simulated drowning (description, 10th)], and I’d bring back a hell of a lot worse than waterboarding…”
— Donald Trump during his campaign for the Republican Party presidential candidate nomination, at a televised Republican presidential debate in Manchester, US state of New Hampshire, 6 February 2016 (article, The Guardian)
Below, video of comment (12 seconds):
Below video (approx. 7 minutes):
A commentary by Kyle Kulinski (the host of Secular Talk,
a politically progressive internet talk show)
Published on 25 Nov. 2015
● SUPPORT OF EXCESSIVE U.S. POLICING, WIDESPREAD SYSTEMATIC USE OF EXCESSIVE POLICE FORCE, AND WIDESPREAD UNACCOUNTED POLICE MURDERS, directed by a primarily white Anglo-Saxon-origin political and police establishment at primarily ethnic minority populations throughout US-jurisdiction territory, for nearly 180 years
1838-2017 (had not come to a complete de facto end as of 2017)
In 1838, the city of Boston established the first official US police (law enforcement) force. By the 1880s, all major US cities had municipal police forces in place.
In the nearly 200 years of the existence of US police forces, US police departments acting throughout US-jurisdiction territory have killed thousands of civilian residents [predominantly, in ratio, “black” (“African”-origin) and Indigenous residents, followed by other minority-group residents].
Because of the lack of sufficient accountability by the US State (on all levels – federal, state, county, and municipal), there has never been (as of 2017) any actual accounting of the following: (1) how many civilian residents have been actually killed by US police action throughout the history of US policing, and (2) how many of the US police killings have been actually ‘justifiable homicides’ [which are not a crime] and how many have been actually ‘unjustifiable homicides’ [which are, under US law, the crime of ‘murder (first or second degree)’ or of ‘manslaughter (first or second degree)’].
Info on the definitions of ‘murder’/’manslaughter’ under US criminal law: How Murder is Defined Under US Criminal Law In 1994, the US Congress required the US Justice Department’s Attorney General [head of the Justice Department] – 78th US Attorney General (1993-2001) Janet W. Reno — to “acquire data about the use of excessive force by law enforcement officers” and “publish an annual summary” of these data. According to William Terrill, a professor of criminal justice at Michigan State University: “It was never implemented.” (source 71)
According to a report by news organization The Guardian (released on 3 March 2015 following an in-depth investigation): An average of 545 homicides by US state and local law enforcement officers throughout US-jurisdiction territory went uncounted in US Government statistics every year for almost a decade (period 2003-2011). (source 74)
According to a civilian research project, Fatal Encounters: During the 18-year period from 2000 through 2017, about 23,000 civilians died in US-jurisdiction territory due to fatal encounters with US police.
According to a research project called The Counted — the most thorough accounting of US police homicides as of 2017 — (by journalists from The Guardian): About 1,150 civilians died in encounters with US police in 2015 and about 1,025 civilians died in encounters with US police in 2016. (source 75)
Confirmed by several civilian investigations: During the three-year period 2014/2015/2016, deaths of civilians in violent encounters with US police had been averaging over 1,000 deaths per year (and deaths of US police officers in violent encounters with civilians had been averaging about 50 officers killed per year).
In October 2015, FBI Director (2013-2017) [former Justice Department Deputy Attorney General (2003-2005)] James B. Comey said: “It is unacceptable that The Washington Post and The Guardian newspaper from the UK are becoming the lead source of information about violent encounters between [US] police and civilians.” (source 76)
According to research by Philip Stinson, an associate professor of criminal justice at Bowling Green State University in Ohio: As of October 2016, for the thousands of homicides by US police during the 10-year period 2005-2015, only about 75 police officers had been charged with murder or manslaughter and only about 25 of those officers had been convicted.(source 73)
Below video (approx. 4 minutes), published by CNN on 18 Aug. 2014: Piaget Crenshaw talks with CNN’s journalist Michaela Pereira. Piaget Crenshaw witnessed the murder of a black teenager, Michael Brown, age 18, by a white police officer, Darren Wilson, on 9 August 2014, in Ferguson, Missouri. She video recorded the body of Brown lying in the middle of the street after having been shot to death by Wilson. (This CNN video report contains some portions of that recording.) Brown’s body stayed in the street for hours. He had been unarmed. (Sources: source1, Wikipedia; source2; source3; source4)
The police killing of Michael Brown lead to the Ferguson unrest, involving protests and riots by the black community of Ferguson and a militarized police crackdown against unarmed protesters (including journalists).
On 4 March 2015, the US Justice Department announced that Brown’s killer, Darren Wilson, would not be charged in the shooting. Its report said “there is no evidence upon which prosecutors can rely to disprove Wilson’s stated subjective belief that he feared for his safety”. (source)
Below video (approx. 8 minutes), published by StormsCloudGathering on 14 Aug. 2014: Includes witness testimony by Michael Brown’s friend Dorian Johnson.
The murder of Michael Brown and the Ferguson unrest which followed contributed to the spread of the Black Lives Matter (BML) international activist movement (that campaigns against violence and systemic racism toward black people).
The Black Lives Matter movement began to organize protests nationwide throughout many cities of the collective territory under jurisdiction of the 48-state contiguous United States. In the first half of July 2016, the Black Lives Matter movement organized at least 112 protests throughout at least 88 cities in US-jurisdiction territory of the Western Continent. (source, New York Times)
On 13 October 2016, following these events, the US Justice Department announced an intention to begin collecting nationwide data on police shootings and other violent encounters with the public (to begin in 2017), for the first time in US history. (source 78)
On 2 May 2017, on the day when former US police officer Michael T. Slager pleaded guilty in a federal case for the murder of unarmed black civilian Walter Scott [pedestrian video of shooting (approx. 3 minutes)], US Justice Department Attorney General Jeff B. Sessions III (2017-2018) said: “The Department of Justice will hold accountable any law enforcement officer who violates the civil rights of our citizens by using excessive force.” (source, Los Angeles Times)
Later that year, on 7 December 2017, Michael Slager was sentenced to twenty years in prison for the murder of Walter Scott. (source, New York Times)
These events marked the de jure (legal) ending of the US Government’s historical support of systematic US police excessive force and unaccounted murder against minority groups throughout US-jurisdiction territory. The de facto development of this issue remains to be seen throughout the coming years.
Sources (for US Government Support of US Police Murder):
70 to 80
● POLITICAL, MILITARY, AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF MANY CRIMINAL GOVERNMENTS AND MILITANT ORGANIZATIONS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD, since the beginning of US Government history and continuing as of 2018 — making the US Government directly and/or indirectly accountable in various crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, crimes of aggression, and war crimes committed by those organizations
1793 – continuing as of 2018
Over 50 authoritarian governments have been supported by the US Government in the past.
For more than 100 years and continuing as of 2018: Through the foreign policy strategy of setting up cooperative authoritarian and corrupt puppet (or satellite) governmentsthroughout the world, the US Government has been pursuing global control (political/military/economic), primarily in service to the big private economic interests of the US ruling class.(source 86)
Sources: 81 to 86
One specific example of many cases of the US Government’s support of right-wing dictatorships during the ”Cold War” period (1947-1991):
Despite the egalitarian ideals proclaimed by the US ”Founding Fathers” in the US Declaration of Independence, from the very beginning the US Government’s foreign policy was a continuation of the British Monarchy’s white supremacism, colonialist imperialism, and economic tyranny — clothed in a pretense of democratic virtue.
The predominant religious-nationalistic ideology which ”validated” US colonialist imperialism and increasingly dominated US Government foreign policy during the 19th century became known as ”Manifest Destiny”.
The long-term consequence of this corrupt direction was the development not of a nation truly promoting “liberty and justice for all”, but of one more dominating and unjust empire promoting perpetual war.…
The Monroe Doctrine: On 2 December 1823, 5th US President (1817-1825) James Monroe, in his Seventh Annual State of the Union Address (full transcript) gave a speech, before the US Congress, expressing what was to become the standard US foreign policy for the Western Hemisphere. This foreign policy became known as the “Monroe Doctrine” (a term coined in 1850).
[The content of Monroe’s speech had been written primarily by then US Secretary of State (1817-1825) and future US President (1825-1829) John Quincy Adams.]
The Monroe Doctrine was, basically, the US foreign policy of opposing European colonialism in Western Hemisphere.
“…The American continents[the Western Continent (as a whole)], by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers.”
“We owe it, therefore, to candor and to the amicable relations existing between the United States and those powers [the European powers] to declare that we should consider any attempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere[the Western Hemisphere] as dangerous to our peace and safety.”
— James Monroe,
Seventh Annual State of the Union Address, 2 December 1823
Having the Monroe Doctrine as its foreign policy standard throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the US Government claimed to be in support of the “free and independent condition” (to paraphrase Monroe’s 7th Annual State of the Union Address) of the Peoples of the Western Hemisphere and of the Planet as a whole.
However, ever since the Monroe Doctrine was first stated in 1823, the pattern of foreign policy actions of the US Government has showed that the primary interest of the US Government has been to make the United States theneo-colonialistimperialist power of the Western Hemisphere (and extending into the Eastern Hemisphere as well) — with the ideological ”justification” of Manifest Destiny.
● U.S. MILITARYINVASION AND OCCUPATION OF
THE HOMELAND OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLES
UNDER PRESENT-DAY OCCUPATION OF 48-STATE CONTIGUOUS UNITED STATES (outside of territory under original jurisdiction of the Thirteen Colonies)
[conquest during 1776-1887 (US war of conquest ended completely in 1924;
US military occupation ever since]
Indigenous Tribal Nations Map (PDF)
(A map showing the pre-European invasion locations of Indigenous nations and tribes throughout territory under present-day occupation of the United States and Canada; by Aaron Carapella, a self-taught mapmaker in Warner, Oklahoma; website)
Below video (approx. 1 minute), published by eHistory.org on 2 Jun. 2014:
”The Invasion of America:
How the United States Took Over an Eighth of the World”
More information on that subject: Section 1 (US Government Genocide)
Sources: 1 to 16
● U.S. MILITARY INVASION AND OCCUPATION OF TERRITORY OF MEXICO [US conquest of Southwest of territory under present-day occupation of 48-state contiguous United States
(the US-Mexican War, 1846-1848)]
On 13 May 1846, the US Congress approved a declaration of war against the State of Mexico, initiating the US-Mexican War (1846-1848). Subsequently, the US Military launched its invasion of the territory under the occupation of the State of Mexico. The US Military pushed deep into this territory within the next two years — occupying the capital, Mexico City, in 1847. The 2-year US invasion and occupation of the territory of Mexico produced a total death toll of nearly 40,000 people (from both sides and all causes).
Following the death and injuries of thousands of Mexican citizens and the US military occupation of Mexico’s capital, the State of Mexico surrendered in 1848. On 2 February 1848, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed. In this treaty, the State of Mexico ceded to the United States the jurisdiction of the northern half of its claimed territory (including territory under present-day jurisdiction of the US states of Texas, Colorado, Wyoming, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and California).
● THE KUALA BATU MASSACRE (7-9 FEBRUARY 1832)
(THE FIRST U.S. MILITARY INTERVENTION IN ASIA —
an act of aggression and genocide)
The first US military intervention in Asia took place in 1832.
The year before (1831), some Malay men temporarily seized a US merchant ship in Sumatra (in territory under present-day jurisdiction of the state of Indonesia). They looted it and killed three of its sailors. “The captain of the vessel has claimed that those responsible were drug addicts attracted to the ship’s 12 chests of opium; but historians note that there was strong evidence that the seizure was brought about by US merchants cheating the Indonesians.” (source) In any event, 7th US President (1829-1837) Andrew Jackson ordered a punitive expedition against the Malay community at the location.
On 7 February 1832, without bothering to find out the facts of the incident, an about 300-man US Navy force under the command of Commodore John Downes and led by first Lieutenant Alvin Edson, launched an attack on the Malay community at Kuala Batu.
Malay men armed with old muskets and spears fought to the death to defend their community but were massacred by the overpowering firepower of the US Navy force firing with naval canons and modern Western rifles. On 9 February 1832, the US Navy force bombarded the village of Kuala Batu, setting it on fire, before plundering it.
Following the three-day US Navy assault, the village of Kuala Batu was left destroyed and a total of about 450 Malay people (both residents resisting the assault and noncombatants) had died. Two US soldiers died in the assault.
● JOINT INVASION AND OCCUPATION OF TERRITORY OF CHINABY WESTERN IMPERIALIST POWERS (INCLUDING THE U.S. GOVERNMENT) [DURING THE APPROXIMATELY ONE-CENTURY PERIOD 1839-1949 (REFERRED TO IN POST-1949 CHINA’S HISTORIOGRAPHY AS THE “CENTURY OF HUMILIATION“)]
During the mid 19th century (1830s-’50s), there was a rapid growth of Western imperialism (primarily British, French, and US imperialism) in the region of East-Southeast Asia. [Definition of ‘imperialism’, Merriam-Webster] Some of the shared goals of the Western powers were the expansion of their overseas markets and the establishment of new ports under their control.
The British-US Big Opium Business in China (1757-1949):
From the late 18th century and throughout the 19th century, the major commodity of the East Asian trade was opium (a highly addictive and toxic narcotic). Opium became the single most valuable commodity exported by Western (a.k.a. European) merchants into the territory of the Empire of China. Opium also flowed into all the ports and states of Southeast Asia. (source, pg 167)
US private merchants with strong connections to and influence on the US Government began to join the China opium trade on a large scale during the early years of the 19th century. By the 1830s, an inter-associated British-US opium drug syndicate, operating primarily through British companies Jardine-Matheson & Co. and Dent & Co. and US company Russell & Co, controlled the tremendously profitable opium trade based at China’s port of Guangzhou (which the Europeans called “Canton”).
The British-US opium drug syndicate had strong connections to and influence on both the British and the US Governments simultaneously.
The opium business going on at Guangzhou, which had begun to result in millions of Chinese opium addicts, was in violation of the law of Imperial China. The Imperial Chinese Government, alarmed by the increasing magnitude of the illegal opium trade, enforced an opium ban in 1839. In response, the British Government decided to use military force to gain control over China and force the opium trade on China.
This led to the First Opium War (1839-1842) and the Second Opium War (1856-1860) — wars of aggression by which, following massacres and mass destruction, the Chinese Nation was forced to surrender sovereignty to Western imperialism. The Chinese Nation was forced to accept the mass marketing of a highly addictive and toxic narcotic on its population for the massive profiteering of the Western opium syndicate.
The US Government pretended to be neutral during the Opium Wars and did not participate militarily at all in the First Opium War. However, following the conclusion of the Opium Wars, the US Government participated in reaping the benefits by participating in the primarily British-French-US occupation of Chinese ports in de facto support of the US opium trade syndicate.
During the Second Opium War, the US Navy participated in at least two battles in support of British and French invading forces — including the Battle of Pearl River Forts (1856) (in which US forces reported a casualty count of 7 soldiers killed and 22 soldiers wounded and Chinese forces casualties were reported to be between 250 and 500 soldiers killed or wounded).
US Military Occupation of Portions of the Territory of China
in Support of the US Opium Syndicate (1842-1949):
Toward the end of the First Opium War, the US Government sent the US Navy’s East India Squadron (a squadron of ships established in 1835 to support US economic interests in East-Southeast Asia) and thereafter essentially imposed an unequal treaty on the Chinese Empire’s ruling Qing dynasty (1644-1912).
The 10th US President (1841-1845), John Tyler, appointed US Congressman Caleb Cushing as Commissioner and US Ambassador to China — for the purpose of imposing a trade treaty on China in de facto support of the US opium industry. (source, segment 116)
Not coincidentally, US Ambassador Caleb Cushing was a cousin of and closely associated with US opium syndicate king John Perkins Cushing. John P. Cushing was a nephew of US opium syndicate founder Thomas H. Perkings. John P. Cushing himself headed the US opium syndicate operations in Guangzhou between 1806 and about 1830. When he returned home to Massachusetts, John P. Cushing was the richest person in New England and one of the richest citizens of the USA — thanks to the US opium business.
Ambassador Caleb Cushing delivered a letter from the US President to the Emperor of China (full text) [written by 14th and 19th US Secretary of State (1841-1843, 1850-1852) Daniel Webster, signed by Tyler, dated 12 July 1843]. The US Government was acting in support of US private opium trade interests while officially pretending to oppose the opium trade.
On 3 July 1844, the Chinese Empire’s ruling Qing dynasty (1644-1912), under conditions of coercion following the First Opium War, conceded and signed theTreaty of Wanghia [Wanxia] (official title: the “Treaty of Peace, Amity, and Commerce, between the United States of America and the Chinese Empire”).
By the Treaty of Wanghia, the US Government and the US opium syndicate it was collaborating with reaped the benefits of the First Opium War — without the United States having participated in the war itself.
This and further imposed unequal treaties, including the unequal treaties imposed by the British, French, and other imperialist governments, forced the Chinese Nation to cede sovereignty and allow foreign imperialist powers to colonize, control, and exploit multiple treaty ports throughout China’s coastal region. Foreign clubs, racehorses, churches, and hospitals were established at the Western-controlled treaty ports, while the British-US opium syndicate expanded its big opium business in China.
During the approximately 100-year period of the Chinese Nation’s subjection to foreign imperialist domination, the US Navy operated the Yangtze Patrol (1854-1949) — a prolonged US naval operation to protect US interests in the Yangtze River’s treaty ports. At many points during the approximately 100-year period from 1843 to 1949, the US Navy forces landed and engaged in military action in Western-controlled ports and other locations of the territory of China.
Full-scale US Invasion of China during Chinese Revolt against Foreign Domination (1900-1901):
[In the West, this Chinese revolt and the third imperialist war of aggression against the Chinese Nation (period 1899-1901) which suppressed it, became termed the “Boxer Rebellion” (based on Western colonists’ term for the Yihetuan, a Chinese militia which initiated the revolt).]
In response to the Chinese Nation’s revolt, an international military coalition of imperialist powers, called the Eight-Nation Alliance, invaded the territory of China with nearly 50,000 troops (plus 100,000-200,000 Russian troops in Manchuria). The Eight-Nation Alliance consisted of the Empires of Britain, France, the United States, Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, and Japan. The US Government committed about 2,500 US troops to the invasion and occupation of China.
The Alliance occupied China’s capital of Beijing on 14 August 1900.
By the time the war ended, on 7 September 1901 (following two years of war), more than 35,000 people had died in the violence.
War crimes (under contemporary international criminal law definitions) were committed by both sides of the war. US soldiers were involved in the widespread war crimes committed by Alliance occupation forces in Beijing — including plunder, rape, killing of noncombatant civilians, and torture and execution of prisoners of war. (source2)
The Chinese Nation’s subjection to foreign imperialist domination and economic exploitation lasted one whole century — until, following Chinese Civil War (1927-1937, 1946-1950), Chairman Mao Zedong of the Communist Party of China proclaimed the People’s Republic of China on 1 October 1949.
● JOINTINVASION AND OCCUPATION OF TERRITORY OF JAPANBY WESTERN IMPERIALIST POWERS [PRE-WWII (INITIATED BY THE U.S. GOVERNMENT IN 1853 )] — (the Origin of the Antagonism between Imperial Japan and the United States, which led to the Asia-Pacific War during World War II)
About 90 years before the Imperial Japanese Air Force attacked the US naval base at Pearl Harbor in US-occupied Hawaii in 1941 [initiating the Asia-Pacific War (1941-1945)], the US Government had originally initiated the US-Japan antagonism in 1853.
Background — Japan had been a peaceful non-imperialist nation for over two centuries before the United States first began committing acts of aggression against the Japanese Nation in 1853:
Before 1853, the State of Japan (called Nippon-koku in the Japanese language) was isolationist. Japan had been ruled for over 250 years by the Tokugawa shogunate (shogunate of the Tokugawa clan). The head of the government was the shogun. The emperor had a symbolic authority. He officially had the role of appointing the shogun but practically had no say in state affairs.
The age of the Shogunate was a period of relative peace for the Japanese Nation. Through there were a number of internal rebellions and uprisings, the Japanese Nation was not involved in any form of imperialism or in any war against any foreign power during the age of the Shogunate. Contact with the West was limited to trade with the Dutch in the city of Nagasaki. Otherwise, Westerners weren’t allowed into the country. Western influences were strongly discouraged.
But decisions made in the offices of Washington, DC, the capital of the United States Empire, in the mid-19th century (1840s-’50s), were to alter the course of history.
The Forced “Opening of Japan” by the US Navy under Orders by the US Government (1853-1854):
The primarily British-US big merchant syndicates (which had strong influence on both the British and US Governments simultaneously) forced the ”opening of China” by using the British Royal Navy to invade China in the Opium Wars (period 1839-1860).
During the same period, as part of the extended plan, the same primarily British-US big merchant syndicates forced the ”opening of Japan” — by initially using the US Navy. The 13th US President (1850-1853), Millard Fillmore, assigned US Navy East India Squadron Commodore (1852-1854) Matthew C. Perry to the mission of initiating the implementation of that plan.
On 8 July 1853, under orders from 14th US President (1853-1957) Franklin Pierce and 23rd US Secretary of War (1853-1857) Jefferson Davis [who afterwards held office as President of the Confederate States (1862-1865) during the US Civil War], a US Navy armada led by Commodore Perry, violating the law of Japan, intruded and anchored in Edo Bay (which later became known as Tokyo Bay after the de facto capital “Edo” was renamed “Tokyo” in 1868). The US Navy armada consisted of a squadron of 4 warships, 2 steamships, and 2 sail ships.
Perry ordered the firing of blank shots from the canons of the warships — as an initial display of military capacity. The Japanese authorities advised the US fleet to travel to Nagasaki, as this was the designated port for all foreign contact. Perry refused and began a campaign of intimidation. Perry ordered the shelling of a few buildings in the harbor. The warship canons were new Paixhans shell guns — naval canons capable of wreaking great explosive destruction with every shell (adopted by the US Navy in 1840s).
Perry threatened to use force against the Japanese unless they would accept his demands to land and formally deliver a letter from the US Government to the Japanese Government.
On 14 July 1853, the Japanese authorities allowed Perry’s fleet to land. Perry went ashore on a beach with about 250 US Marines and Navy sailors. He formally delivered a letter from the previous, 13th US President (1850-1853), Millard Fillmore, to the Shogun (the de facto ruler of Japan at the time). Afterwards, the US armada departed, and Perry promised to return again the next Spring.
The US Government’s letter to Japanese Government (the Shogunate) was an imperialist ultimatum. The message was that either the Japanese Government accept the US Government’s demands or face a US naval invasion. After deliberation, the Shogunate agreed to accept almost all of the US Government’s demands.
On 13 February 1854, Perry returned to Edo Bay with a US naval armada of 10 ships and about 1,600 men.
On 31 March 1854, the Convention of Kanagawa (or Kanagawa Treaty) (official title: the “Japan-US Treaty of Peace and Amity”) was signed between the US and Japanese Governments. The text of the treaty was reluctantly endorsed by Emperor Komei [the 12st Emperor of Japan (1846-1867)]. The unequal treaty was ratified on 21 February 1855.
The Kanagawa Treaty essentially handed over the Japanese ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to US control as treaty ports. The State of Japan was coerced into further concessions during the next few years to the US, British, French, and Russian Empires.
The Shimonoseki War (1863-1864) — A Joint US-British-French-Dutch Imperialist War of Aggression against Japan:
In 1863, nearly a decade following the forced “opening of Japan” by the US Government and subsequent occupation of Japanese ports by Western imperialist powers, Emperor Komei issued an “Order to expel barbarians” (攘夷実行の勅命). Subsequently, Japanese armed forces began a military resistance against Western imperialist occupation of Japanese ports.
That led to what is known in Japan as the Shimonoseki War (1863-1864) — in which US, British, French, and Dutch naval forces waged a war of aggression and defeated the Japanese resistance.
The Rise of Modern Imperial Japan (1868-1947) in Reaction to Western Imperialism:
In Japan, debate over foreign policy and popular outrage over perceived appeasement to the foreign powers was a catalyst for a shift in political power from the Shogunate back to the Imperial Court in Kyoto. The opposition of Emperor Komei to the treaties further lent support to the movement for the overthrow of the Shogunate. This movement led to the Meiji Restoration in 1868, an event in which political rule was transferred to an oligarchy under the Emperor, giving rise to the modern Empire of Japan (1868-1947).
Thereafter, the State of Japan rapidly transformed from a peaceful non-imperialist state to an imperialist power resembling, in its foreign policy, the Western imperialist powers. From that point on, Imperial Japan began to compete with the Western imperialist powers for imperialist control over the general East-Southeast Asia region (which to the US was termed the “Far East” and to Japan was termed “Greater East Asia”).
The Imperial Japanese Government began to pursue a plan for the removal of Western imperialist domination from the whole of East-Southeast Asia. That plan became known as the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. That plan intended to create a self-sufficient “bloc of Asian nations led by the Japanese and free of Western powers”.
The imperialist competition between, on the one side, the Western imperialist powers (primarily the US, British, and French Empires), and on the other side, Imperial Japan, led to the catastrophic Asia-Pacific War (1941-1945) — which resulted in a total death toll of more than 30 million people (the majority being civilians).
The Asia-Pacific War culminated in the US Government’s atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 and the subsequent US military occupation and domination of the Island of Japan [1945 – continues as of 2018].
●SOME EXAMPLES OF U.S. MILITARY ACTS OF AGGRESSION AGAINST REMOTE PACIFIC ISLANDER COMMUNITIES DURING THE 19TH CENTURY
A US naval expedition, called the “United States Exploring Expedition”, authorized by the US Congress and created by 7th US President (1829-1837) Andrew Jackson in support of US merchant interests, committed acts of aggression against some remote Pacific Islander communities while sailing through islands of the ”Pacific Ocean” (European naming).
— ● FIJI ISLANDS: After an initial incident between members of the US naval expedition and certain islanders in Malolo Island in the western Fiji Islands (in which two US expedition members were killed) — an about 60-man US Navy force attacked the native community of the island, burning two Fiji villages to the ground and killing nearly 80 Fijians. — July 1840, Malolo Island, Fiji Islands (Info resource: “US Exploring Expedition”, Wikipedia)
— ●SAMOAN ISLANDS: After a US citizen merchant sailor was killed by one or more Samoans on the Samoan island of Upolu, two US Navy warships, under the command of Lieutenant William L. Hudson and Commandant Samuel R. Knox, bombarded the Samoan village of Saulafata. Once the first canon was fired, all the natives of the region evacuated. There was no resistance when a US Navy ground force invaded and destroyed three villages of the island.
A 70-man US Navy force got off the warships and set afire most of the huts of the village of Saulafata. Lieutenant Hudson then ordered the navy troops to destroy the villages of Fusi and Sallesesi as well. Another approximately 100 Samoan huts were burned down by the US troops. The troops returned to the beach and destroyed all the canoes they could find before reboarding their ships and sailing away. — 24 February 1841, Upolu Island, Samoan Islands (Info resource: “Bombardment of Upolu”, Wikipedia)
— ● GILBERT ISLANDS: An initial incident in which a US sailor was captured by natives of the Gilbertese island of Tabiteuea led to a decision by the same commander who had ordered the attack on Upolu, Lieutenant William L. Hudson, for an attack on Tabiteuea.
An about 80-man US Navy force led by Lieutenant William M. Walker burned down two villages and massacred defenders of the community who were armed with swords, spears, and rocks. There was no US combat casualties. — 9 April 1841, Tabiteuea Island, Gilbert Islands (Info resource: “Battle of Drummond’s Island“, Wikipedia)
● U.S. MILITARY INVASION AND OCCUPATION OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS — OVERTHROW OF THE NATION-STATE OF HAWAII BY COUP D’ETAT (1893),
ANNEXATION OF HAWAII AGAINST WILL OF HAWAIIAN CITIZENRY (1898)
(US military occupation continues as of 2017)
In 1892, the US Government under the Benjamin Harrison Administration secretly conspired with a small group of sugar and pineapple-growing businessmen in Hawaii (most of them of US citizenship or heritage) to overthrow the Kingdom of Hawaii in a coup d’etat. The Kingdom of Hawaii (1795-1893) was an internationally-recognized sovereign nation-state.
The Harrison Administration conspiracy’s goal was the annexation of Hawaii into the United States. The US Government plan had the approval of US President (1889-1893) Benjamin Harrison and was organized, at the top, by US Secretary of State (1889-1892) James G. Blaine, US Secretary of the Navy (1889-1893) Benjamin F. Tracy, and US Minister [ambassador] to Hawaii (1889-1893) John L. Stevens. (source 95)
The coup d’etat was executed on 16-17 January 1893. An initial US invasion force of about 200 fully-armed US Marines and Navy sailors from the US Navy ship USS Boston was ordered into Honolulu, capital of the Kingdom of Hawaii. That initial US invasion force supported the local coup organizers and their local (non-indigenous) militia of about 200 men in the carrying out of the coup.
After careful consideration, at the urging of advisers and friends, Hawaiian Queen Lili’uokalani ordered her forces to surrender, without a battle.
● WAR OF AGGRESSION AGAINST THE SPANISH EMPIRE — U.S. MILITARY SEIZURE OF THE ISLANDS OF CUBA, PUERTO RICO, GUAM,
AND THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS (1898)
In 1898, the US Government, driven by imperialist and economic motives and the ideology of Manifest Destiny, initiated a war of aggression against the Spanish Empire. That year, the US Government gave an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Spain to surrender the Caribbean island of Cuba to US control. The Kingdom of Spain refused, and the US Government attacked Imperial Spain’s forces in Cuba.
That led to a nearly four-month war known as the US-Spanish War (21 April 1898 – 13 August 1898). The United States defeated the Spanish Empire, which ceded jurisdiction of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the United States at the Treaty of Paris (1898), signed on 10 December 1898.
The Peoples of Cuba and of the Philippines had both been fighting for their independence from the Spanish Empire. Instead of granting independence to the native Peoples who had been oppressed under the Spanish Empire for over 200 years (Guam), over 300 years (the Philippines), or nearly 400 years (Cuba and Puerto Rico), the US Government, instead, turned Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines into neo-colonies of the US Empire.
Sources: 96 – 97
● U.S. MILITARY INVASION AND OCCUPATIONOFTHE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS (1898 – 1946): WAR OF AGGRESSION (1898 – about 1913);
false independence granted in 1946
On 4 February 1899, the US Government initiated a war of aggression against the newly-independent Philippine Republic — for the US conquest of the Northern Philippines. That US war of aggression has become known as the US-Philippines War (1899 – officially ended in 1903 but Filipino militant resistance to US occupation continued for several more years).
In 1899, the US Military also invaded the Southern Philippines, initiating a war of aggression against the Bangsamoro Peoples. The Bangsamoro militant resistance to US colonialist occupation become known as the Bangsamoro Rebellion [a.k.a. “Moro Rebellion”] (1899-1946)
● U.S. MILITARY INTERVENTIONS, INVASIONS, AND OCCUPATIONS THROUGHOUT THE WHOLE WESTERN CONTINENT SOUTH OF TERRITORY ANNEXED INTO THE 49-STATE CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES — [THE TERRITORY OF 20TH CENTURY ”MEXICO”, OF THE ISLANDS OF THE “CARIBBEAN SEA”, OF THEISTHMIAN PORTION OF THE WESTERN CONTINENT (“CENTRAL AMERICA”), AND OF THE SOUTHERN SUBCONTINENT OF THE WESTERN CONTINENT (“SOUTH AMERICA”)]
[Since the Monroe Doctrine (1823) and Throughout 19th-20th Centuries]
CARIBBEAN ISLANDS: The following islands or island portions in the Caribbean Sea were invaded, occupied, turned into US neo-colonies, and controlled by the United States during the 20th century:
— ● THE ISLAND OF CUBA:
— REPEATED US MILITARY INVASIONS AND OCCUPATIONS (1898-1961)
(Guantanamo Bay still occupied as of 2017)
The US Government controlled Cuba until the Cuban Revolution of 1953-1959, which brought the Communist Party of Cuba led by Fidel A. Castro to power in 1959. (source 102)
The Bay of Pigs Invasion (a.k.a. Girón Beach Invasion):
In April 1961, the US Government carried out an invasion of Cuba known as theBay of Pigs Invasion[referred to in Cuba as the Playa Girón (Girón Beach) Invasion]. The invasion — which was organized by the CIA and aimed to regain US control of Cuba — had been originally planned during the administration of 34th US President (1953-1961) Dwight D. Eisenhower and was approved by 35th US President (1961-1963) John F. Kennedy.
The US Government used a CIA-sponsored paramilitary group composed of about 1,500 Cuban exiles, Brigade 2506, to launch a secret ground invasion as the initial phase of the CIA plan. Within three days, the invasion was defeated by Cuban Army forces led by Fidel Castro (who had the support of the vast majority of the Cuban population at the time). Thereafter, the CIA plan was aborted. (sources 103, 104)
As of 2018, despite the protests of the State of Cuba, the US Government continues to occupy Guantanamo Bay on the island of Cuba (under US Military occupation since the first US invasion of Cuba in 1898). The US Government retains the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base there — which continues to host the Guantanamo prison [one of many US torture prisons during the Bush II Admin. (2001-2009) [Section 2 (Crimes against Humanity): Torture: Torture under the Bush II Admin.].
— ● THE EASTERN PORTION OF THE ISLAND OF HISPANIOLA
(THE PORTION OF THE ISLAND KNOWN AS HAITI): — FIRST U.S. INTERVENTION AGAINST HAITIAN INDEPENDENCE (1790s) — FIRST U.S. MILITARY INVASION AND OCCUPATION OF HAITI (1915-1934), — SECOND U.S. MILITARY INVASION OF HAITI (1994)
First US Intervention under Washington-Jefferson Administration (1790s):
The first time the US Government intervened against the independence of the Peoples of the Caribbean Islands was under the administration of 1st US President (1789-1797) George Washington and 1st US Secretary of State (1790-1793) Thomas Jefferson.
The eastern portion of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola was then known as France’s colony of “Saint-Domingue”. In an attempt to suppress the Haitian Revolution (1791-1804), the newly-formed US Government under the Washington-Jefferson Administration sent $750,000 in military aid as well as some troops to the French colonialist slaveholder regime on the colony.
The Haitian People’s revolution succeeded despite the combined effort of European colonialist powers to suppress it. On 1 January 1804, the independent Republic of Haiti was established. (source 107) The US Government did not officially recognize Haitian independence until 1862 and continued to withhold diplomatic relations until 1886. (source 109, section ”1804-1915”)
First US Military Invasion and Occupation of Haiti (1915-1934):
In March 1915, the US Government set up a puppet dictatorship in Haiti, under dictator Jean Vilbrun Guillaume Sam. On 27 July 1915, Sam ordered the massacre of 167 political prisoners. As soon as the news of the executions spread, an uprising broke out against the US-backed dictatorship. The next day, Sam was captured and lynched to death by an enraged mob in Port-au-Prince (the capital).
On 28 July 1915, under orders by 28th US President (1913-1921) Woodrow Wilson, over 300 US Marines invaded Haiti as the initial force of a US Military invasion intended to suppress the Haitian People’s pro-democracy uprising. Thereafter, the US Government set up a US Military dictatorship in Haiti. Haiti remained under US Military occupation until 1934 (for nearly two decades).
Franklin D. Roosevelt, then US Assistant Secretary of Navy (1913-1920) [later US President (1933-1945)], rewrote a new Constitution for Haiti. According to co-director of Haiti Progress newspaper, Maude LeBlanc: “[The US Government-imposed Constitution, written by Roosevelt] allowed foreigners to own land. US companies then grabbed the most fertile valleys and set up agribusinesses growing sugar, rubber, sisal, and other crops.” (source 108)
LeBlack continues: ”Haitians were again enslaved under a system of forced labor called the ‘corvee’. At bayonet point, Haitian peasants were forced to build roads, railroads, buildings, and other infrastructure to service US companies and their neo-colonial administration… Peasants in guerilla zones or who resisted the corvee were herded into concentration camps.” (source 108)
A Haitian militant resistance endured a struggle against US Military occupation for two decades. Thousands of Haitian resistance fighters were massacred by the US Military using heavy modern weaponry including aerial bombardment and machine guns (while US Military casualties were minimal).
War crimes (including acts of genocide) committed by US occupation forces included massacres of resistance fighters and civilians, torture during interrogations, arson, robbery, and rape. The news media in Haiti were strictly censored by the US Military authorities, and the US citizenry in general was kept in complete ignorance about the situation in Haiti. (sources 105-110)
After the US Military’s withdrawal in 1934, the US Government controlled Haiti through puppet governments, and war crimes against the People of Haiti continued to be carried out through a proxy army. (sources 107, 108,109)
Second US Military Invasion of Haiti (1994):
On 19 September 1994, the United States invaded Haiti for a second time. According to LeBlanc: “Twenty thousand US troops occupied Haiti, supposedly to restore President Aristide to power. In fact, they only restored themselves to power.” (source 108) (Jean-Bertrand Aristide was a democratically-elected head of state who had been removed in a 1991 military coup.) More information: Sources 107, 108,109
Sources (for Haiti): 105 to 110
— ● THE WESTERN PORTION OF THE ISLAND OF HISPANIOLA
(THE PORTION OF THE ISLAND KNOWN AS THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC): — FIRST U.S. MILITARY INVASION-OCCUPATION OF DOMINICAN REPUBLIC (1916-1924) — SECOND U.S. MILITARY INVASION OF DOMINICAN REPUBLIC (1965)
The Second US Military Invasion of the Dominican Republic (1965):
When a popular rebellion broke out against a US Government-installed military junta in 1965, the US Government ordered the US Military to invade. On 28 April 1965, over 40,000 US troops invaded the Dominican Republic to crush the pro-democracy uprising. The operation was directed by the CIA. By the end of the US invasion, about 3,000 Dominicans and about 30 US troops had died. (source, The Progressive)
THEISTHMIAN PORTION OF THE WESTERN CONTINENT (“CENTRAL AMERICA”):
All of the following regions of the isthmian portion of the Western Continent have been invaded by the US Military and/or controlled by the US Government during the 20th Century:
— ● THE TERRITORY OF PANAMA
(PREVIOUSLY UNDER THE JURISDICTION OF THE STATE OF COLOMBIA)
— FIRST U.S. MILITARY INVASION AND OCCUPATION OF PANAMA (1903-1914);
U.S. MILITARY OCCUPATION OF PANAMA CANAL ZONE (1903-2000)
— SECOND U.S. MILITARY INVASION OF PANAMA (1989-1990)
— ● THE TERRITORY OF NICARAGUA — U.S. MILITARY INVASION AND OCCUPATION (1912-1913) After intermittent landings and naval bombardments in the previous decades, the US Military occupied Nicaragua almost continuously from 1912 to 1933.
— ●THE TERRITORY OF GUATEMALA — SUPPORT OF BRUTAL MILITARY DICTATORSHIPS
AND OF GENOCIDE AGAINST INDIGENOUS PEOPLE OF GUATEMALA (1954-1980s)
According to Stephen Schlesinger: “In 1954, the American [US] Government committed one of the most reprehensible acts in its history when it authorized the CIA to overthrow the democratically elected leader of Guatemala, President [1951-1954] Jacobo Arbenz. It did so secretly [following the influence of a lobbying campaign by the United Fruit Company] but later rationalized the coup on the ground that the country was about to fall into communist hands.”
“Guatemalan society has only recently recovered from the suffering that this intervention caused, including brutal military dictatorships and a genocidal civil war against its [Indigenous] population, which led to the deaths of an estimated 200,000 people. Only in the 1980s, when a peace process commenced, did democratic governance resume…”
THE SOUTHERN SUBCONTINENT OF THE WESTERN CONTINENT (“SOUTH AMERICA”) — UNJUST POLITICAL, MILITARY, AND/OR FINANCIAL INTERVENTIONS
SINCE THE DECLARATION OF THE MONROE DOCTRINE (1823)
The US Government began intervening throughout the southern subcontinent of the Western Continent in the years following the initial declaration of the Monroe Doctrine (1823). Since then, the US Government has used political, military, and financial power in its effort to exercise control over this collective region. [Example: US Government involvement in the overthrow of Chilean democratically-elected government and support of Chilean military dictator (1973-1990)Augusto Pinochet. More information: Pinochet1; Pinochet2]
● U.S. MILITARY INVASION AND OCCUPATION OF VARIOUS ISLANDS IN THE WESTERN OCEAN OF THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE [”PACIFIC OCEAN” (EUROPEAN NAMING)]
Besides the Hawaiian Islands and the island of Guam, the following islands in the Pacific Ocean were also occupied by the United States during the 20th century and remain under US Military occupation to the present day as of 2018:
[The names mentioned for the island groups are the contemporary international conventional names.]
— ● The eastern portion of the Samoan Islands, which became known as “American Samoa” (officially occupied by the United States since 1899).
— ● A portion of the Virgin Islands which has become known as the “US Virgin Islands” (“purchased” from Denmark in 1916 via the Treaty of the Danish West Indies for $25,000,000 in gold).
— ● The Northern Marianas Islands, Micronesia, Palau, and the Marshall Islands — occupied by the US Military following World War II. False independence has been granted in recent years to most of these island groups. (The US Government retains control of, and military bases on, the island groups).
US Nuclear Testing in Marshall Islands (1946-1958): In the US-occupied Marshall Islands, the US Military tested 67 nuclear weapons from 1946 to 1958, including the first hydrogen bomb on 1 November 1952 (which destroyed the island of Elugelab in Enewetak Atoll). The US Military forced residents to leave the region of the nuclear tests. The ecosystem of the Marshall Islands and all its inhabitants (human and nonhuman) was exposed to radioactive fallout. Many exposed islanders experienced harm to their physical health as a result of the exposure. (source, Asia-Pacific Journal)
Below video (approx. 5 minutes), published by Newsreel, 22 Oct. 2014::
A description (with video recordings) of US nuclear bomb testing in the Marshall Islands and effects on the people who lived there
— ● Other islands of the Pacific Ocean occupied by the United States: Midway Islands, Wake Island, Palmyra Atoll, Johnston Atoll, Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Kingman Reef
Following the Western imperialist occupation of China’s ports and Japan’s ports during the 1840s-’60s, the next ports of interest were Korea’s ports. Western (primarily the US-British-French) imperialist powers began working on forcing the ”openingofKorea” in the 1860s.
Prior to the initial US Government-led Western imperialist intervention in the Japan-Korea region during the period 1850s-1870s, both the Japanese and Korean Nations had lived without war for two centuries.
The Korean Government refused to surrender Korean national sovereignty to foreign powers. In June 1871, the US Navy invaded Korea with nearly 700 troops. The US invasion force, armed with modern Western weapons, massacred Korean defenders. There were at least about 300, possibly up to about 600, Koreans killed, and there were 3 US troops killed. (source1, S. Brian Wilson; source2, Wikipedia)
In the following years, Imperial Japan rose to power in the region, in competition with the Western imperialist powers. In 1910, the Korean Peninsula was officially annexed by Imperial Japan.
● SECOND U.S. MILITARY INVASION OF KOREA (1945-1953): INSTALLING OF A REPRESSIVE PUPPET DICTATORSHIP IN THE SOUTH
FULL-SCALE INVASION AND OCCUPATION OF SOUTH AND NORTH KOREA,
INDISCRIMINATE AERIAL BOMBARDMENT OF NORTH KOREA
Following the Asia-Pacific War (1941-1945), the Korean Peninsula was occupied by the US and USSR (Soviet Union) Governments, which agreed to divide the Peninsula at the 38th Parallel North into South Korea and North Korea. Prior to that, the Korean Peninsula was the undivided homeland of a single Korean Nation since ancient history.
The US Government and the USSR Government each set up its own authoritarian satellite government in South Korea and in North Korea, respectively. The full-scale Korean War (1950-1953) which followed was a proxy war between the US-led Western imperialist powers, on the one side, and the Soviet and Chinese Marxist communist powers, on the other side.
The Korean People became a victim population of the post-WWII power antagonism between the Western imperialist powers and the Marxist communist powers.
Sources: 116 to 119
● U.S. MILITARY INVASION AND OCCUPATION OF VIETNAM (1954-1973): FUNDING OF FRANCE’S WAR OF AGGRESSION IN VIETNAM (1946-1954);
INSTALLING OF A REPRESSIVE PUPPET DICTATORSHIP IN THE SOUTH
FULL-SCALE INVASION AND OCCUPATION OF VIETNAM,
INDISCRIMINATE AERIAL BOMBARDMENT
OFVIETNAM, CAMBODIA, AND LAOS
The People of Vietnam had been living under foreign imperialist domination for nearly 100 years prior to the US Government’s intervention in their independence struggle. The US Government’s intervention was, essentially, an intervention against Vietnamese independence. That intervention led to the devastating war which to the United States citizenry is known as the Vietnam War(a.k.a. Second Indochina War) and to the Vietnamese citizenry is generally known as the Resistance War against the United States of America (Vietnamese: Khang chien chong My) (1955-1975).
Sources: 120 to 123
● U.S. GOVERNMENT CRIMES AGAINST THE NATIONS(PEOPLES)
OF THE PREDOMINANTLY MUSLIM-POPULATED REGIONS OF THE WORLD (1991 – continuing as of 2018)
— ● CRIMES AGAINST THE NATION OF IRAQ PRIOR TO THE 2003 US-LED INVASION (1991-2003)
In 1990, following a dispute between then-Iraq’s Government and then-Kuwait’s Government regarding oil industry production (an economic dispute), 5th President of Iraq (1979-2003), Saddam Hussein, a dictator, ordered the Iraqi Army to invade and occupy the territory of Kuwait. (source) The Iraqi Army consisted of mostly young conscripts forced into military service under a repressive dictatorial government.
Regardless of the details of the economic dispute between the two governments, Saddam Hussein’s invasion of Kuwait was a crime of aggression[ICC Statute Article 8 bis (2) acts (a) to (d)]. No act of aggression can ever be justified.
But the US Government-led military reaction to Saddam Hussein’s crime was an even greater crime. Because: It was a massively destructive crime against the People of Iraq, who were not accountable for the foreign policy actions of the dictator of Iraq.
The US Government and Military crimes against the Nation of Iraq prior to the 2003 US-led Military invasion of Iraq (during period 1991-2003) included the following:
— — ● The Massive Indiscriminate Aerial Bombardment of Iraq
During the US-British Military “OPERATION DESERT STORM”
(17 January – 28 February 1991):
“Operation Desert Storm” included one of the most intense bombardments in world history. In a timespan of 44 days, more than 88,000 tons of bombs bombarded military and civilian targets indiscriminately. The bombs included about 320 tons of depleted uranium. (source1, TeleSUR; source2, pg 81)
Highway of Death: During 25-27 February 1991 (toward the end of the 44-day “Gulf War”), withdrawing convoys of both Iraqi Military and civilian vehicles were obliterated by repeated US-led aerial bombardment — a war crime [ICC Statute Article 8: (2) (b) (vi)]. The main highway on and around which the withdrawing military and civilian people were massacred, Highway 80, became called the “Highway of Death”.
The death toll on and around the Highway of Death was anywhere between conservative estimates of about one thousand deaths to much higher estimates of tens of thousands of deaths. “…[An uncertain number of between about 1,000 and tens of thousands] of young Iraqi men, forced into military service, were murdered in a mass act of sacrifice to the gods of war and violence. They were hungry, tired, and ill-prepared soldiers, many of whom were walking back to their homes across different cities in Iraq.” (DSsource1, Tele SUR; DSsource3; DSsource4; DSsource5)
Targeting of civilian infrastructure in “Operation Desert Storm”: Civilian infrastructure of Iraq struck by US–British Military bombardment included power stations, water treatment facilities, cement factories, refineries, radio and television networks, agricultural farms, hospitals, health clinics, medicine factories, schools, airports, railways, bridges, and private residences. (source1, Tele SUR; source2, Global Research) [war crime, ICC Statute Article 8 (2) (b) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (ix)]
Bombing of Amariyah Bomb Shelter: The ”Desert Storm” war crimes included the deliberate US Military bombing of Amariyah Bomb Shelter on 13 February 1991, in which more than 408 civilians (mostly women and children) were burned to death following the targeting of their bomb shelter with two laser guided “smart bombs”. Former CIA National Intelligence Officer at the time, Charles E. Allen, may bear specific accountability for the choice of that target. [war crime, ICC Statute Article 8 (2) (b) (i), (ii), (iv), (v)]
Civilian death toll of “Operation Desert Storm”: In a conservative estimate, more than 3,500 civilians were killed [source, Project on Defense Alternatives (PDA)].
More information on “Operation Desert Storm” and its destructive consequences on the People of Iraq:
— — ●The UN Security Council’s sanctions against Iraq and some of their destructive consequences on the People of Iraq (1991-2003):
US Government crimes committed against the Iraqi Nation during the period 1991-2003 also included the primarily US-British Government-imposed sanctions against Iraq (1991-2003). According to UNICEF and other reliable sources, those imposed sanctions resulted in the deaths (from malnutrition and other causes) of more than 500,000 Iraqi children. (source1, New York Times; source2, Guardian)
According to Former UN Assistant Secretary General (1994-1998) and Humanitarian Coordinator in Iraq (1997-1998), Dennis Halliday (who estimated total 1990s Iraqi sanctions-related deaths at 1 – 1.5 million and who resigned from the United Nations in protest in 1998 after having served the organization for 34 years):
“The [UN] Security Council is guilty of intentionally sustaining a regime of killing that can only be termed genocide.” (source, E-International Relations — Students)
[crime of genocide: physical genocide, criterion c: “deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part”)]
“I think this is a very hard choice, but the price — we think the price is worth it.”
— Former US Ambassador to the United Nations (1993-1997), Madeleine J. K. Albreight, stated on CBS’s 60 Minutes (12 May 1996), in response to Lesley Stahl’s question, “We have heard that half a million children have died. I mean, that’s more children than died in Hiroshima. And, you know, is the price worth it?” (source, Wikiquote)
Historic quote by US President Bush I as “Operation Desert Storm” begun:
”We have before us the opportunity to forge, for ourselves and for future generations, a ‘New World Order’— a world where the rule of law, not the law of the jungle, governs the conduct of nations. When we are successful — and we will be — we have a real chance at this New World Order…”
All of the aforementioned primarily US-British Government-Military war crimes and acts of genocide against the predominantly Muslim population of Iraq during the 1990s — together with the related US Military presence in the predominantly Muslim “Land of the Two Holy Places” (territory of Saudi Arabia) — were some of the primary motivating factors which motivated the Islamic extremist militant group al-Qaeda, led by Osama bin Laden, to declare war against the United States in 1996 and to plan and carry out the 11 September 2001 terrorist attack against the US Nation.
THE 11 SEPTEMBER 2001 TERRORIST ATTACK BY AL-QAEDA AGAINST
THE NATION OF THE UNITED STATES
In a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks, four commercial airplanes were hijacked by 19 al-Qaeda militants with intention to target the major political, military, and economic landmarks of the United States.
In the timeline of the attacks, the first two airplanes were crashed into the two 110-story towers of the World Trade Center complex in New York City (resulting in the collapse of both towers within less than two hours), the third airplane was crashed into the Pentagon (US Military headquarters) in Washington, DC, and the forth airplane was crashed into an open field (following a passenger revolt) in territory of the US state of Pennsylvania.
About 3,000 people were killed and more than 6,000 people were injured during and in the immediate aftermath of the attacks. Approximately 97% of the casualties were non-military civilians.
Below video (approx. 1 minute), published by XFlame786, 27 Apr. 2008:
Shows 11 Sept. 2001 terrorist attack on World Trade Center
According to contemporary international criminal law (ICC Statute) definitions, all attacks targeting noncombatant civilians — by either state military organizations or non-state militant organizations or groups — may be classified by one and the same measureas one or more of the following:
(1) crimes against humanity[Article 7 (1) (b)]
(2) war crimes[Article 8 (2) (b) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv)]
(when in the context of war)
(3) acts of (physical) genocide[Article 6 (a), (b)]
(intending to destroy a people-group in whole or in part,
by killing or seriously harming members of the group)
Murderous means are never justified:
No matter what the motives (ends) may be, the ends never justify the means.
Only just means are justified. Murder is never just; therefore murderous means are never justified.
Both the US Government and Islamic extremist militant organizations such as al-Qaeda have chosen to use mass murder as a means to an end. Who can justify that?
Whether it is mass murder through state military organizations (such as the US Military) or mass murder through non-state militant organizations (such as al-Qaeda), murder is murder. Each party to the conflict erroneously “justifies” its own mass murders as a means to an end; resulting in a vicious cycle of mass murder.
The motives of al-Qaeda for the 11 Sept. 2001 terrorist attack against the US Nation:
The motives underlying the violence which ends up affecting all humanity ought to be understood. Resolution of a conflict requires an understanding of the motives that lead the conflicting parties (in this case, the US Government and al-Qaeda) to commit catastrophically violent acts against one another’s national or religious people-groups.
According to the aforementioned documents, a militant resistance and retaliation against the United States for primarily the following foreign policy actions were the motive leading to al-Qaeda’s declaration of war against the United States and to al-Qaeda’s 11 September 2001 terrorist attack against the US Nation:
● US Government political, financial, and military support of the State of Israel while the State of Israel has been carrying out various crimes against the predominantly Muslim indigenous population in the territory of Palestine (original regional definition), since 1948 (and war crimes in the adjacent territory of Lebanon in the 1980s) (as well as US Government support of crimes against predominantly Muslim populations by other states);
● US-British Military attacks and Government-imposed sanctions against the Nation of Iraq (1990s)
[Information in preceding section, Crimes Against the Nation of Iraq Prior to the 2003US-led Invasion of Iraq (1991-2003)];
● US Military presence in the territory of Saudi Arabia (1990s);
● US oil corporations’ unfair economic exploitation of the oil-rich Gulf region;
● US Government support of oppressive dictatorial satellite governments in Saudi Arabia and throughout the predominantly Muslim-populated region of the world
It is the foreign policy crimes of the US Government, primarily in the Middle East, which motivated al-Qaeda’s crime of 11 September 2001 against the US Nation.
Whom has the US Government’s foreign policy in the Middle East been serving?
The US Government’s foreign policy in the Middle East has been serving NOT the US citizenry [“We the People” (note: US Constitution)], butbig private economic interests (big corporate oil interests, big corporate arms interests, big lobby interests, etc.).
Instead of recognizing its own crimes and working to heal the causes of conflict, the US Government has been demanding of the US citizenry to bear the consequences of the Government’s crimes — in the form of retaliatory terrorist attacks upon the citizenry (past and anticipated), war (without end in sight), thousands of US citizen deaths and injuries (as of 2017), loss of security, waste of over 5 trillion dollars of US citizen taxpayer treasure (as of 2017) [profit for a minority of US citizens for whom this waste equals profit], etc.
— ● U.S. GOVERNMENT-LED MILITARY COALITION (NATO)
AND ASSOCIATED CORPORATE MERCENARY
INVASION AND OCCUPATION OF AFGHANISTAN (2001 – continuing as of 2018)
According to the evidence, the Afghan Taliban (the Government of Afghanistan at the time of al-Qaeda’s 11 September 2001 terrorist attack against the US Nation) were not involved in any of al-Qaeda’s attacks against any Western targets prior to the US Government-led invasion of Afghanistan.
The Afghan Taliban were among the first governments to condemn the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks. Following the attacks, the Taliban attempted to negotiate with the US Government for an investigation into Bin Laden’s alleged involvement and for a fair trial for Bin Laden.
But the policy of the US Government was, as stated by US President George W. Bush during a meeting with Jordan’s King Abdullah II on 28 September 2001: “…There is no negotiations with the Taliban.” (source)
On 2 October 2001, Afghanistan Ambassador to Pakistan, Abdul Salam Zaeef, appealed to the US Government to negotiate, stating, “We do not want to compound the problems of the people, the country, or the region.” He pleaded, “The Afghan people need food, need aid, need shelter, not war.”
But five days later, on 7 October 2001, the US Government launched its war of aggression against the Afghan Nation. This war was to become the longest war in US history. According to the “Costs of War’ Project, as of November 2017, this war has resulted in a total of over one million deaths [from all sides and from all causes (direct and indirect)]. (source, “Costs of War” Project)
The US Government’s war, imposed upon a whole predominantly Muslim nation as a response to a terrorist attack by a small group of Islamic extremist militants, became seen, in the eyes of many Muslims, as a USA vs. Islam conflict. Compounded by the subsequent US Military and associated corporate mercenary invasion of Iraq, this motivated many Muslim men to join the ”jihad against the Crusaders”.
To incite a “[militant] jihad against the Crusaders” was Osama bin Laden’s vision. Three years before the 11 September 2001 attacks, in a 1998 interview with the Al Jazeera Arab television channel, Bin Laden said: “Our duty is to incite the jihad against America, Israel, and their allies. We are following this route.” Following the 11 September 2001 attacks, by initiating wars of aggression against predominantly-Muslim nations, the United States walked into Bin Laden’s trap and helped Bin Laden’s vision of a global war between the allied Western powers and Islamic extremist militant groups to materialize.
And for some people — such as, for one example, the big profiteers of Lockheed Martin Corporation (which has, for one example, been selling thousands of “Hellfire missiles” to the US Government for at least $70,000 each) (source) — there is always a lot of profit to be made in war.
Sources: 124 to 127
— ● U.S. GOVERNMENT-LED MILITARY COALITION
AND ASSOCIATED CORPORATE MERCENARY
INVASION AND OCCUPATION OF IRAQ (2003 – continuing as of 2018)
A “Slam Dunk Case” — A Fabricated Case for the Invasion of Iraq:
On 7 October 2002, in a televised speech (full transcript), Former US President (2001-2009) George W. Bush presented to the US citizenry his administration’s case for the US Government-led invasion of Iraq — with false information:
Bush II spoke of a “grave threat to peace” from Iraq.
He said that Iraq “possesses and produces chemical and biological weapons”.
He also said, “We’ve learned that Iraq has trained al Qaeda members in bomb-making and poison and deadly gases.”
[Iraq was a beaten-down nation-state after more than 10 years of US-British Military attacks and UN Security Council sanctions. The State of Iraq had been subject to UN weapons inspections for more than 10 years. Saddam Hussein’s Government had agreed to unconditional return of inspectors three weeks prior to Bush’s speech and was cooperating with the United Nations. (“Iraq Weapons Inspections” (1991-2007) — Fast Facts, CNN Library)]
After the US Government-led Military Coalition and Private Military Companies (PMCs) invasion and occupation of the whole territory of Iraq, no Iraqi weapons of mass destruction were ever found anywhere.
Nearly two years following Bush II’s aforementioned speech, while speaking at the White House Correspondents’ Dinner on 24 March 2004, Bush II publicly joked about not finding weapons of mass destruction in Iraq.
At the time of his joking, one year (March 2003 – March 2004) of the war Bush II had ordered into existence had already produced a death toll of:
● more than 15,000 primarily Iraqi citizens
(including more than 4,000 civilian noncombatants)
[source, Project on Defense Alternatives (PDA)] ●about 1,000 combined US Government-led Military Coalition and Private Military Companies (PMCs) personnel
[source1 (Coalition), Iraq Coalition Casualty Count; source2 (PMC)]
Also, the war had brought widespread destruction and destabilization to Iraq.
Furthermore, in that first year of foreign military occupation, thousands of primarily Iraqi citizens had been injured, imprisoned, and/or tortured or abused by US Government-led Coalition and PMC forces. [source, Center for Economic and Social Rights (CESR)]
And, following all this, at the 2004 Correspondents’ Dinner, Bush II joked: “Those weapons of mass destruction got to be somewhere. … Nope. No weapons over there. … Maybe under here.” (approx. 1-minute video below)]
On 11 October 2002 (four days after Bush II’s speech making the case for war to the US citizenry), the US Democratic-Republican Congress passed the “Iraq Resolution” (formally, the “Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2003”). That resolution authorized Bush II to use the US Military for the planned invasion and occupation of Iraq.
Of the US Republican Party Representatives, 96% voted for the resolution; and of the US Democratic Party Representatives, 39% voted for the resolution.
On 5 February 2003, Former US Secretary of State (2001-2005) Colin Powell also made the case for the US-led invasion of Iraq at a plenary session (full session) of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC).
In Powell’s 2003 address to the UNSC (full transcript), Powell falsely claimed that the US Government had “solid intelligence” (definite evidence) that (1) Saddam Hussein possessed weapons of mass destruction and that (2) there was a ”sinister nexus” (dangerous connection) between Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda.
The “solid intelligence” about a Hussein – al Qaeda “sinister nexus” was based on statements by a prisoner of war subjected to torture.
Torture of prisoners of war is a war crime. [Section2 (Crimes against Humanity): Torture: Torture under the George W. BushAdministration]. Judicially, statements given under torture are considered inadmissible as evidence.
The CIA’s tortured prisoner of war was Ali Abdul Aziz al-Fakhiri (1963-2009), a citizen of Libya who became known by the name “Ibn al-Sheikh al-Libi”. Al-Libi, who was associated with al-Qaeda and had been captured in November 2001, had begun to give statements of high interest to the CIA only after having been subjected to torture by Egyptian interrogators under CIA direction while under the custody of Egypt’s Mubarak regime (a former US puppet dictatorship).
According to a declassified CIA cable, Al-Libi’s torture prior to having begun to give statements of high interest included having been subjected simultaneously to withholding of food and to an extreme form of cramped confinement in a ”small box” [approximately 50 cm x 50 cm (apx 2 ft x 2 ft)] for approximately 17 hours; and, after having been allowed to come out, having been knocked down to the floor and “punched for 15 minutes”. (source, “Torture Report”, Larry Siems) (These were some of the CIA’s many torture methods during the Bush II Admin.)
According to Former Chief of Staff to US Secretary of State Colin Powell (2001-2005), Lawrence (“Larry”) B. Wilkerson: On 1 February 2003 (four days before Powell’s address to the UNSC), in a one-on-one discussion at the CIA headquarters, he(Wilkerson) and Powell had agreed that the information they had about a Hussein – al-Qaeda connection was, in Wilkerson’s word, “bullshit”. And they had decided to eliminate all mention of such a connection.
But “within an hour, [CIA Director (1997-2004)] (George J.) Tenet and [CIA Deputy Director (2000-2004)] (John E.) McLaughlin dropped a bombshell on the table in the [CIA] director’s Conference Room.”
That “bombshell” — which Wilkerson referred to as a “Tenet-McLaughlin fabrication” — was information that was more than a year old, was based on statements Al-Libi had given while subject to actual and threatened torture under Mubarak regime custody, and was considered dubious by officials of the US Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) (a US Military intelligence agency).
[source (for info in previous three paragraphs), Ray McGovern (a veteran CIA officer turned political activist)]
In January 2004, Al-Libi recanted his previous statements, saying he had said to his interrogators what he thought would stop the torture. (source1, Douglas Jehl, New York Times; source2, Carl Levin) But his purpose for the CIA and for all the Big Interests which wanted the invasion of Iraq had already been served.
And so, based on a fabricated case for the invasion of Iraq [a case CIA director Tenet told Bush II was a “slam dunk case” (source)], the Bush II Admin. sold the war to the US citizenry and to the coalition governments and received the green light to proceed with a US Government-led war of aggression against the Iraqi Nation.
US-led Military Invasion of Iraq (2003):
About one month following Powell’s address to the UNSC, on 19 March 2003, the initial military operations of the US Government-led invasion of Iraq began, with the initial aerial bombardment of Baghdad.
Below video (approx. 7 minutes), by Sky News:
Shows initial US bombardment of Baghdad (US Military “Operation Shock and Awe”) preceding the 2003 US Military-led ground invasion
The US Government-led occupation forces overthrew the Sunni-dominated Saddam Hussein Government (the Iraqi Ba’ath Party) on 9 April 2003. Then they arranged for the establishment of a Shia-dominated, pseudo-democratic US puppet government that would privatize the Iraqi oil industry and serve the big economic interests of Western private corporations.
Simultaneously, US forces in Iraq during the initial 2003-2004 occupation were committing widespread war crimes against the People of Iraq — including mass arrests, imprisonment, torture, and murder. [Center for Economic and Social Rights (CESR), report, “Beyond Torture: US Violation of Occupation Law in Iraq (PDF)]
All that led to a widespread Iraqi militant resistance to the US Government-led military occupation. The militant resistance to foreign military occupation gradually developed into a Sunni-Shia civil war. These events, in turn, helped lead to the eventual rise (by 2013) of Sunni extremist militant organization IS (ISIS) [”Islamic State (of Iraq and Syria)”]. (source, Global Research)
Sources [for 2004 US Military invasion of Fallujah (1st and 2nd Battles of Fallujah)]: source1, World Socialist Web Site; source2; Iraq Body Count (IBC) Press Release; source3, The Independent; source4 (1st Battle, Wikipedia); source5 (2nd Battle, Wikipedia)
Commanders-in-Chief of US-British War in Iraq found Guilty of Crimes:
After the guilty verdict reached by five senior judges was delivered, Mahathir Mohamad [Fmr Malaysia’s Prime Minister (1981-2003) and founder of the KLWCC] said:
“Powerful countries are getting away with murder.”
Sources: 128 to 131
● CIA-LED DRONE MURDER PROGRAM —
CARRIED OUT IN PREDOMINANTLY MUSLIM-POPULATED TERRITORIES (INCLUDING TERRITORIES OF PAKISTAN, YEMEN, SOMALIA, LIBYA, AND SYRIA) (2004 – continuing as of 2018)
Since the initial conflict between the US Government and Islamic militant jihadism expanded in 2001 (following al-Qaeda’s 11 Sept. attacks against the US Nation and the US Government/Military’s subsequent invasion of Afghanistan), murder has become a continuous policy of all major parties to the conflict, making this world a more dangerous place worldwide.
The CIA-led drone attack program is an assassination ortargeted killing program — in other words, a targetedmurder program.
“Collateral damage” may be a 10-year old boy named Naeem, struck and killed in his home by shrapnel from a US drone strike which targeted the neighboring house. “Collateral damage” may be people heading to a wedding party, killed after four ”’Hellfire missiles” were launched from a US drone at their convoy.
[For more information about the aforementioned examples, the reader may view and read the photo messages pertaining to the aforementioned US drone strikes in Pakistan and Yemen territories — in Section 4 (War Crimes): War Crimes against Peoples of the Middle East, Central Asia, and North and East Africa.]
That murder program has done nothing for the development of understanding between the Peoples (the One People of the Planet). Rather than diminishing terror, that murder program has been generating terror.
CONSEQUENCES OF THE U.S. GOVERNMENT’S “GLOBAL WAR”
THROUGHOUT THE MOSTLY MUSLIM-POPULATED REGIONS OF THE WORLD
(Since 2001 and as of 2017)
As a result of the US Government’s wars of aggression in the predominantly Muslim-populated regions of primarily Southwest Asia (the Middle East), Central Asia, and North and East Africa — wars which the US Government has been calling, formally, the “Global War on Terrorism” (GWOT) (a.k.a. “War on Terror”) — there have been the following consequences as of 2017:
GENERAL WORLDWIDE CONSEQUENCES OF THE WARS (as of 2015):
— ● A death toll, as a direct and indirect result of the violence, of at least 1.3 million men, women, and children in Iraq and Afghanistan [according to a 97-page report, “Body Count” (PDF), released in March 2015 by the Washington DC-based Nobel Peace Prize-winning doctors’ group, the Physicians for Social Responsibility (PSR) (source)]
[That death toll does not include the death toll as a consequence of the US Government’s support of wars throughout the rest of the predominantly Muslim-populated regions of the world (including in the territories of Pakistan, Yemen, Somalia, Libya, Syria, Gaza, and the Southern Philippines.)]
— ● A further humanitarian catastrophe toll, in Iraq and Afghanistan (as well as throughout the rest of the predominantly Muslim-populated regions affected) of millions of people either injured [physically and/or mentally (psychologically)] and/or orphaned or widowed and/or having lost relatives and/or friends and/or having been displaced as refugees and/or having been otherwise harmed.
As of 2015, there were about 3 million internally displaced Iraqi citizens and nearly 2.5 million Afghan citizen refugees living in the territory of Pakistan. (source1; source2)
Side note: The masses of people who have been killed or been otherwise harmed as a result of the US Government’s so-called “War of Terror” since 2001 were innocent. They had nothing to do with al-Qaeda’s Sept. 11 terrorist attacks against the US Nation.
Only a small group of people closely associated with Osama bin Laden had been guilty of that great crime against the US Nation and humanity when the US Government decided to begin to inflict catastrophic wars upon whole predominantly-Muslim nations (thereby generating a Western-Muslim war throughout the predominantly-Muslim regions of the world).]
— ● An empowering of, rather than diminishing of, Islamic extremist militancy and terrorism (source1; source2)
— ● The rise of Islamic ultra-extremist militant organization IS (ISIS)[“Islamic State (of Iraq and Syria)”] throughout predominantly Muslim-populated regions of the world (source1; source2) — ● A decreasing of, rather than increasing of, the security of the US citizenry and of humanity in general (source)
Islamic extremist terrorist attacks statistics: According to a Wikipedia volunteer research, in the 3-decade period prior to the 11 Sept. 2001 terrorist attacks, there was a total worldwide death toll of about 2,000 people killed and about 8,000 people injured by Islamic extremist terrorist attacks. In the less than 2-decade period since the 11 Sept. 2001 terrorist attacks and subsequent US invasion of Afghanistan the following month, there has been, as of July 2017, a total worldwide death toll of more than 15,000 people killed and nearly about 40,000 people injured by Islamic extremist terrorist attacks.
According to these statistics, therefore: The rate of persons being killed by Islamic extremist terrorist attacks since the US Government began to wage its so-called “War on Terror” is, as of 2017, more than ten times the rate prior to the 11 Sept. 2001 terrorist attacks and the US wars. (Informational resource: “List of Islamist Terrorist Attacks”, Wikipedia)
The Bush II Administration attempted, largely unsuccessfully, to prevent the US citizenry from seeing such images of coffins being returned from its wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.
In March 2003, when the US Military invaded Iraq, a directive was issued by the Pentagon, saying, ”There will be no arrival ceremonies of, or media coverage of, deceased military personnel returning to or departing from” air bases.
The preceding photo was one from a batch of 361 photos (taken by the US Military for historical purposes) which Russ Kick, a First Amendment activist, made public after receiving them in a CD from the US Air Force Air Mobility Command after filing and appealing under the US Freedom Of Information Act (FOIA).
CONSEQUENCES UPON U.S. MILITARY PERSONNEL AND MILITARY CONTRACTORS:
● Death Toll and Physical Injury Toll
(among combined US Military personnel and military contractors):
Since 2001 and as of July 2017, among the combined US Militarypersonnel, associated Private Military Company (PMC) US citizen personnel, and non-Military non-PMC US citizens who participated in the US Government-led wars and occupations in Iraq and Afghanistan, there has been a totaldeath toll of more than 10,000 US citizens and a total physical injury toll of more than 100,000 US citizens.
● Severe Disabling Physical Injury Toll and Amputation Toll
(Among US Military personnel):
Of the US Military personnel who were physically injured in Iraq and Afghanistan: According to a research by the Huffington Post, as of 2012, more than 16,000 military personnel were taken from the battlefield with severe, disabling wounds.
According to data released by the US Army Surgeon General’s Office in 2012: Among those personnel who were wounded in action and received medical treatment, there were more than 1,500 military personnel who underwent major limb amputations (including nearly 500 who underwent multiple amputations).
— ● PTSD and Depression [Mental Injury] Toll
(Among US Military personnel and military contractors):
Beyond the death and physical injury toll, there has also been a widespread mental (psychological) injury toll among both the US Military personnel and private military contractors who returned from deployments in Iraq and Afghanistan.
According to the US Department of Veterans Affairs: As of 2017, between 11 and 20% (between about 300,000 and more than 500,000) of US Military veterans of the Iraq/Afghanistan wars had developed symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). (source, US Dept. of Veterans Affairs).
According to a study by RAND Corporation: As of 2015, at least 20% (more than 500,000) of US Military veterans of the Iraq/Afghanistan wars had /developed symptoms of PTSD and/or depression. [source, “(US Military) Veterans and PTSD”]
The post-deployment PTSD and depression statistics of US citizen private military contractors are similar to those of US Military personnel. (source, Time)
— ● Suicide Toll
(Among US Military veterans of current and previous US wars):
According to the US Department of Veterans Affairs: As of 2014, the suicide rate of US Military veterans (including veterans of previous wars) was at an approximate average of 20 veterans committing suicide per day (twice the US citizen civilian suicide rate). (source, US Dept. of Veterans Affairs)
At the suicide rate reported by the US Department of Veterans Affairs, more than 7,000 people — that is, more than twice the amount of people who died in the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks — is the amount of US Military veterans of US wars who, in recent years as of 2017, have been committing suicide every year.
“The lives of US soldiers don’t mean anything to the US military except to fuel the war machine.”
ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE WARS ON U.S. CITIZEN SOCIETY:
According to the “Costs of War” Project(a research project by a team of 35 scholars, legal experts, human rights practitioners, and physicians, which began its work in 2011):
As of 2017, the US Government had spent or obligated over 5 trillion dollars of the US citizenry’s treasure (mostly borrowed money, charged to the US citizen taxpayers) to cover the expenses of the US Government-led wars in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. (source, “Costs of War” Project, Watson Institute of International and Public Affairs, Brown University, Rhode Island)
That waste is a tremendous economic loss for the US citizen society in general.
The US Society’s (the People’s) tremendous losses (in terms of lives, physical well-being, psychological well-being, economic well-being, etc.) translate to tremendous profits for a small minority of citizens (such as, for some prime examples, the upper shareholders and executives of arms industry corporations, oil industry corporations, and private military corporations (PMCs)].
First U.S. Military Invasion and Occupation of Veracruz (1847):
In a three-day bombardment during 22-25 March 1847, the US Navy bombed the Mexican port of Veracruz, with a total of about 6,700 cannonballs, under orders by US Army General (1814-1861) Winfield Scott. Bombs rained down on hospitals, churches, and public and private buildings. They were followed by scenes of rape, pillage, robbery, and killings by the invaders. About 500 Mexican civilians died. [source1; source2 (Part III)]
● WAR CRIMES AGAINST THE PEOPLE
OF CHINA — OCCUPATION OF BEIJING (1900-1901)
US soldiers were involved in the widespread war crimes committed by Eight-Nation Alliance occupation forces during the occupation of Beijing in 1900-1901 — including plunder, rape, killing of noncombatant civilians, and torture and execution of prisoners of war. (source)
● WAR CRIMES AGAINST THE PEOPLES
OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS
The 1945 US mass bombardment and complete destruction of Manila:
In its effort to regain control of the “Philippine Islands (Philippines)” (Spanish colonialist exonym) from the Empire of Japan (which occupied the Philippines for three years during 1942-1945), the US Government under 32nd US President Franklin D. Roosevelt committed one of the greatest war crimes in human history — the 1945 US mass bombardment and complete destruction ofManila (the capital city of the of the Islands during the whole period of Spanish and US colonialist rule). [The US Military campaign to regain control of Manila is known as the Battle of Manila (1945).]
The US Air Force bombed Manila with about 100 bombs every day for about one month (February 1945), without regard for the about one million civilian inhabitants trapped inside the city. According to various estimates, between 100,000 and 240,000 civilians died inside the city (mostly as a result of US aerial and artillery bombardments). After the battle, the US Military reportedly bulldozed almost whatever was left of Manila. (source3)
For the sake of the dominance of US imperialism in the Asia-Pacific region, the United States wiped out the pre-WWII city of Manila off the face the Planet, as it did with the pre-WWII cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in the same year.
Below video (approx. 6 minutes), published by MyFootage.com on 22 May 2012:
US Army propaganda video report, by Army Pictoral Service (a division of the US Army); shows scenes from the US Military’s invasion and bombardment of Manila in 1945
● WAR CRIMES AGAINST THE PEOPLE OF HAITI (1915-1934)
Information: Section 3 (Crimes of Aggression): First US Military Invasion and Occupation of Haiti (1915-1934)
● WAR CRIMES AGAINST THE PEOPLE OF GERMANY (1942-1945)
— British Royal Air Force (RAF) and US Air Force (USAF) joint venture of indiscriminate aerial bombardment and mass destruction, targeting German cities and towns and their civilian populations
throughout a landscape of 160 cities and towns
involving use of newly-designed incendiary bombs [bombs using chemical materials such as napalm and/or white phosphorus and which are designed to light fires and/or burn material and bodies; most of these weapons developed by US corporations (source)],
mostly or partially destroying over 25 German cities having populations of over 500,000 people (source),
and killing, according to historian Jörg Friedrich,
a total of about 600,000 civilians (including more than 75,000 children) (source)
— including the FIREBOMBING OF HAMBURG
(24 July – 2 August 1943)
[death toll: more than 40,000 people (mostly civilians)]
— including the FIREBOMBING OF DRESDEN
(13-14 February 1945) [death toll — disputed by historians
(source1, Quora; lowest estimates: source3; highest estimates: source4, source5)
most estimates ranging between a. 25,000 and a. 500,000 people
The German city of Dresden was a pan-European historic and cultural center without any military or industrial significance. Hundreds of thousands of German war refugees had taken refuge there in the hope that they would be spared from attacks. (source)
British and US bombers dropped more than 4,500 tons of high-explosive bombs and incendiary bombs (firebombs) on the defenseless city and its population. (source) A huge fire swept through the city. Many thousands of people were crushed under the rubble, or were burned in the fire, or suffocated due to the fumes from the fire.
Below video (approx. 4 minutes), published by History — News on 23 Aug. 2013:
Shows scenes from the British-US Air Forces’ firebombing of Dresden
The 20th century World Wars (I and II) were power antagonisms between the top politico-military-economic powers of the world. In World War II, all major parties to the World War committed great atrocities against the People of the Planet.
While the German National Socialist (Nazi) Government, headed by Chancellor of Germany (1934-1945) Adolph Hitler, was carrying out one of the greatest genocides in human history (against the Jewish People and other Peoples throughout the region of Europe), the US and British Governments, headed by US President (1933-1945) Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister (1940-1945; 1951-1955) Winston L. S. Churchill, were carrying out an equally unjustified genocide against the German People.
The justification for any act of genocide is always: ZERO (no justification).
● WAR CRIMES AGAINST THE PEOPLE OFJAPAN
— napalm firebombing campaign of indiscriminate mass destruction,
destroying over 60 Japanese cities
— including the FIREBOMBING OF TOKYO
[one of the most destructive and deadliest specific aerial bombardments in all modern history as of 2018 (along with the 1940s US-British firebombings of the German cities of Dresden and Hamburg, the 1945 US aerial bombardment of the Filipino city of Manila, and the 1945 US atomic bombings of the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki)] —
in which about 300 US Air Force B29 bombers dropped nearly 500,000 cylinders of napalm and petroleum jelly on the most densely populated areas of Tokyo, wiping out about half the city and killing 100,000 – 125,000 people (mostly civilians) (source)
— in total 1943-1945 aerial bombardment campaign, killing more than 300,000 people (mostly civilians) and injuring about 400,000 people (mostly civilians), and leaving about 5 million people homeless
— followed by the ATOMIC BOMBINGS OF HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI
[the most catastrophic attacks in the history of human violence (as of 2018)] —
in which the US Government targeted civilian populations with two atomic bombs, killing a total of about 200,000 people (mostly civilians)
and severely injuring a total of about 200,000 people (mostly civilians)
Clarification: The official bombing order, dated 25 July 1945, was signed by US Army Deputy Chief of Staff (1944-1947), General Thomas T. Handy, having the approval of Commander-in-Chief the 33rd US President Harry S. Truman.
The planning, preparation, and order for the atomic bombings:
As soon as the imminent development of an atomic bomb began to be feasible two years preceding the atomic bombings, the top US Government and Military authorities began planning and preparing to use one or more nuclear weapons on highly-populated cities of Japan. (Cities of Germany were also considered as a target, but the Nazi dictatorship in Germany surrendered before the atomic bombs were ready.)
Heading the plan were 32nd US President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933 – died 12 April 1945), 54th US Secretary of War (1940-1945) Henry L. Stimson, and US Army Lieutenant General Leslie R. Groves II. The project for the development of the first nuclear weapons, called the Manhattan Project, had been approved by Roosevelt in 1941, was headed by Simpson, and was under the direction of Groves from 1942 to 1946.
The head of the scientists working on the Manhattan Project was Julius R. Oppenheimer (aka J. Robert Oppenheimer) (PhD, physics). Oppenheimer was on the Target Committee (a joint committee of scientists and military officials who decided on which cities in Japan to recommend as targets for the atomic bomb — resulting in the final choice of Hiroshima for the first atomic bombing).
The order was authorized by Roosevelt’s successor, 33rd US President (1945-1953) Harry S. Truman, and by the Secretary of War, Stimson. The order was issued on 25 July 1945, signed by US Army Deputy Chief of Staff (1944-1947), General Thomas T. Handy, and addressed to Commander of US Stategic Air Forces, General Carl A. Spaatz.
Japan was already defeated when the atomic bombs were dropped:
By the time the official atomic bombing order was issued, on 25 July 1945, a two-year US Air Force campaign of indiscriminate aerial bombardment had already destroyed over 60 Japanese cities and killed hundreds of thousands of men, women, and children. It had become clearly evident to both sides of the war that the nation-state of Japan was already destroyed and defeated.
The US Government made no effort at a negotiation of a peace treaty or of a negotiated surrender by the Imperial Japanese Government on bilateral terms. Nor did the US Government give any forewarning of the nuclear catastrophe it was preparing to inflict on the Japanese Nation. Truman, Stimson, and their inner circle had their intentions set on ending the war with the atomic bombings as soon as the bombs were to be ready.
In the US Air Force’s firebombing campaign prior to the atomic bombings, all major Japanese cities were firebombed and massively destroyed except for the five (including Hiroshima and Nagasaki) which were being considered as targets for the atomic bombs. Hiroshima and Nagasaki were left intact in order to display the awesome power of the atomic bomb and send a powerful message to the Soviet Union as well. (source)
The US Government’s massively destructive napalm firebombing and atomic bombing war crimes against the People of Japan — which are the greatest war crimes in human history — were not a necessity (as falsely communicated by the US Government to the US citizenry).They were a choice. They were the crime ofgenocide.
The atomic bombings:
On the morning of 6 August 1945, a uranium atomic bomb was dropped on the city of Hiroshima by the US Air Force acting under the Truman-Stimson bombing order. The 400-year old city of Hiroshima was reduced to dust.
People who were able to escape from hell on earth that day evacuated to the suburban areas outside the city and took refuge at first-aid stations set up in public buildings. But this provided only momentary relief. People started to die one after another at the first-aid stations. Cremation could not catch up with the rate of death, so many of the bodies had to be buried together. (source, photo message 18)
Three days following the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, on 9 August 1945, a plutonium atomic bomb was dropped by the US Air Force on the city of Nagasaki.
Harry S. Truman — The greatest war criminal in human history (for whom the US State Department headquarters building was renamed in 2000):
Oppenheimer and several scientists on his staff at the Manhattan Project did not approve of the second atomic bombing (of Nagasaki). On 25 October 1945, Oppenheimer met with Truman, tried to persuade the US president to support international controls on nuclear weapons, and told the president, “Mr. President, I feel I have blood on my hands.” Afterwards, Truman instructed US Undersecretary of State (1945-1949) Dean G. Acheson to never bring “that son of a bitch in this office ever again”. Truman later referred to Oppenheimer as “that cry baby scientist”. (source1; source2)
Harry S. Truman, by ordering the atomic bombings of civilian populations (and in addition, ordering the US genocide by indiscriminate bombardment against the neighboring North Korean civilian population during 1950-1953), made himself the greatest war criminal in human history.
The US Government has yet to recognize its many foreign policy crimes throughout the world and continues to honor its war criminals.
In 2000, the building which houses the US State Department headquarters was renamed the Harry S. Truman Building, in honor of 33rd US President Harry S. Truman (the greatest war criminal in human history).
● WAR CRIMES AGAINST THE PEOPLE OF KOREA
— campaigns of indiscriminate mass destruction in North Korea territory,
dropping about 635,000 tons of bombs, including more than 32,000 tons of napalm (source1; source2),
in a territory about the size of that of the US state of Pennsylvania,
destroying nearly all of the major cities in North Korea
and wiping out about 20% of North Korea’s pre-war population [confirmed by US Air Force General (and major war criminal) Curtis E. Lemay] (source3)
— North Korea totalcivilian death toll (1950-1953): Estimates of the total civilian death toll — from all causes of the war (including starvation and disease) — range from estimates in the hundreds of thousands to estimates of up to 2 million people (source1; source2)
The US Government’s indiscriminate aerial bombing campaign upon the territory of North Korea in the early-1950s ranks among the greatest war crimes in human history.
An elderly woman and her grandchild wander among the debris of their wrecked home in the aftermath of an air raid by US Air Force planes. Pyongyang (capital of the state of North Korea), northern portion of the Korean Peninsula, about 1950. …………. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)
Below video (approx. 10 minutes), Part 22 of documentary “Korean War”:
Shows scenes from the US Air Force’s indiscriminate aerial bombardment of the northern Korean Peninsula, early 1950s
● WAR CRIMES AGAINST THE PEOPLES
OF SOUTHEAST ASIA
— campaigns of indiscriminate mass destruction throughout collective territory of Vietnam, Cambodia (source), and Laos (source),
dropping a total of about 7,800,000 bombs (source)
[more than twice the amount of bombs dropped on Europe and Asia in WWII] (source),
including: ● two-thousand pound bombs
● napalm firebombs
(dropping about 373,000 tons of napalm)
[“one ton of napalm alone is enough to burn a football field in seconds”] (source),
● white phosphorus munitions,
● chemical defoliants like Agent Orange [dropping about 20 million gallons of toxic chemicals (manufactured primarily by Monsanto and Dow Chemical)] (source),
● cluster bombs
(about 260 million cluster bombs dropped in Laos) (source), ● sophisticated missiles,
● and large amounts of regular bombs
— more than 2 million Southeast Asians died, and more than 3 million were injured, as a result of this war throughout this collective territory during the period 1961-1975 (source)
— as of 2017, an estimated about 3 million residents, including children of the second and third generations, have experienced negative health consequences as a result of toxic exposure to Agent Orange and other chemical defoliants (source1; source2)
The US Army initially attempted to cover up the Mai Lai Massacre(Vietnamese, Son My Massacre).
In 1968, Colin Powell [Fmr US Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1989-1993), Fmr US Secretary of State (2001-2005)] held the rank of Major in the US Army and was deployed to Vietnam.
Powell was involved in the US Army’s attempt to cover up the Mai Lai Massacre. (source) Two decades later, he held the top office in the US Military and was commanding the genocidal US-led Military ”Operation Desert Storm” against the Iraqi Nation [which killed more than 3,500 civilians (Section 3: Subsection ”Op. Desert Storm”)].
The pathological act of physical genocide committed by certain US Army soldiers (from Company C, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, 11th Brigade, 23rd (Americal) Infantry Division of the US Army) against the civilian community of the Vietnamese village of Son My on 16 March 1968 was one of many symptoms of a systemicpathology which has been flowing down the Chain-of-Command from the US Politico-Military-Economic Establishment since the early history of the USA.
The US Government and Military top officials themselves — under the Lyndon B. Johnson Administration (1963-1969) and the Richard M. Nixon Administration (1969-1974) — were accountable for ordering the most destructive acts of physical genocide against Peoples of Southeast Asia.
The US Establishment’s totally unjustified war of aggression for the control of Southeast Asia was, overall, a massive genocide — producing a death toll of at least 2 million Southeast Asians during the 1960s – early-1970s. (source1; source2;source3; source4)
Despite the tremendous catastrophe, the Vietnamese People (in general) prevailed against the US Establishment and finally won their national independence after a century of foreign imperialist occupation.
Below video (approx. 11 minutes):
Shows US Air Force video recordings of indiscriminate napalm firebombing of the rural landscape of Vietnam (including the firebombing of civilian dwellings along the way)
For nearly three months in 1999, a US Government-led NATO aerial bombardment of the territory of Yugoslavia (particularly Serbia and Kosovo) destroyed much of Serbia’s infrastructure and killed between 500 and 2,000 civilians.
”…The NATO bombs loaded with depleted uranium were falling on bridges, maternity hospitals, private residences of ordinary people,a moving train, a Serbian TV station, the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade, as well as water plants, schools, electrical power plants, and many other objects that were crucial for the society to function.”
● WAR CRIMES AND OTHER CRIMES AGAINST THE PEOPLES OF THE MIDDLE EAST, CENTRAL ASIA, AND NORTH AND EAST AFRICA (1991 – continuing as of 2018)
predominantly Muslim-populated territories
where US Military has been waging war:
Middle East: IRAQ (1991-continuing), YEMEN (2010-continuing), SYRIA[2014-continuing (also, CIA-organized funding/training/arming of Sunni militant rebels in Syrian Civil War, period 2011-2017, Ssource1, Ssource2];
Central Asia: AFGHANISTAN (2001-continuing), PAKISTAN(2004-continuing);
North Africa: LIBYA(2011-continuing);
East Africa: SOMALIA (1992-1994; 2007-continuing)
Below video (approx. 5 minutes, published by Fusion on 27 Oct. 2016):
Also: political, financial, and military support of US satellite (puppet) governments which have been committing war crimes and other crimes
— For one prime example: territory of ”PALESTINE”[a term here used as a regional term, here defined as referring to the collective territory including (1) all territory under present-day occupation of the State of Israel, (2) the West Bank, and (3) the Gaza Strip]
US Government support of the Government of the State of Israelas that Government has been repeatedly using its armed forces to commit war crimes, crimes of physical genocide[ICC Statute, Article 6: criteria (a)-(b)-(c)], and crimes against humanity[ICC Statute, Article 7: (1) (a)-(b)-(d)-(e)-(f)-(h)-(i)-(j)-(k)] against the indigenous people of the territory of Palestine (referred to as ”Palestinians”)
— Another prime example: US Government support of criminal dictatorships throughout Middle East and North Africa(MENA) region for decades — in territory of the states ofSAUDIA ARABIA, BAHRAIN, YEMEN, EGYPT, ETHIOPIA, etc.
— According to the research of the ”Costs of War” Project: Since the 2003 US Government-led invasion of Iraq and by April 2015, about 165,000 civilians had been killed throughout the territory of Iraq by direct war-related violence. (source, ”Costs of War” Project)
The below photo message shows and describes one example of what the US Government and Military refer to as “collateral damage”.
Below video (approx. 1 minute), published by AP Archive on 21 Jul. 2015:
Shows Ali Abbas, at age 12, interviewed at a hospital in Kuwait, 2003.
He wanted to know why people are being killed to be “liberated” and how all his pain can be made to go away.
Below video (approx. 9 minutes):
Shows witness testimony at the scene of the US Army’s mass killings of Iraqi protesters in Fallujah on 28 April 2003. The first part of a six-part documentary (approx. 10 minutes each part) about the period of events from the original US Military occupation of Fallujah in April 2003 to the First US Invasion (Battle) of Fallujah in April 2004.
This website does not independently confirm the identity or cause of death of the person whose dead body is shown in the previous photo. That photo is one of several photos of corpses of men and women who died during the November 2004 US Military invasion of Fallujah, showing bodies with clothes intact and no sign of bullet wounds but with faces and other parts of the bodies melted away.
The US Military initially attempted to cover up, but later admitted, its use of white phosphorus munitions as an incendiary weapon in Fallujah.
White phosphorus munitions are officially classified as incendiary weapons. In effect, they are also chemical weapons. ”Chemicals used against humans or animals that cause harm or death through the toxic properties of the chemical are considered chemical weapons.” (Peter Kaiser, Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons)
Below video (approx. 27 minutes):
Video documentary, ”Fallujah: The Hidden Massacre” [Includes testimony by Jeff Englehart, a former US Marine turned anti-war activist, who had participated in the November 2004 Second US Invasion (Battle) of Fallujah. Englehart gives a witness account that white phosphorus was used by the US Military as a chemical weapon in Fallujah.]
Below video (approx. 10 minutes): Shows a US Marine shooting dead a wounded man in a mosque by firing point-blank to his head, during the Second US Invasion (Battle) of Fallujah in November 2004. The US Naval Criminal Investigative Service, headed by Major General Richard Natonski, ruled that the soldier acted in self-defense. (WikiNews report, 6 May 2005)
The Muslim men shown in the video below, lying dead or wounded inside of one of the mosques of Fallujah, had nothing to do with al-Qaeda’s 11 September 2001 terrorist attack against the US Nation — which was a great crime committed by al-Qaeda (NOT by the Iraqi Nation). The men shown in the video below were simply men who were defending Fallujah from a US Military invasion which was, in the first place, a crime of aggression against the Iraqi Nation.
DATTA KHEL DRONE MASSACRE of 17 March 2011 (Pakistan): A few months after the drone murder of 10-year old Naeem Ullah, the Pakistani village of Datta Khel was struck again by the US Government’s aerial drone operators.
On 17 March 2011, a US drone strike targeted a compound where a group of people believed to be Taliban militants were meeting. According to reports, the people were actually mostly local civilians meeting about a local business matter. Between two and four missiles were fired within three minutes, killing at least 42 people and injuring at least 10 others.
Thousands of Pakistani protesters filled streets in protest following these war crimes by the US Government against the Pakistani Nation.
— publicly advocating the use of war crimes and genocide (criteria a, b) as a means to winning a war, in an interview with Fox & Friends, December 2015 (during his campaign for the US presidency) (source, New York Mag., 6 Aug. 2018; more info: source, Al-Jazeera, 1 July 2017)
As soon as Donald J. Trump — a real estate billionaire with no previous position in the US Government — took the office of 45th President of the United States on 20 January 2017, he joined ALL the previous US presidents in becoming accountable, as Commander-in-Chief of the US Military, for violent crimes against the People of the Planet.
By the time Donald Trump was inaugurated as US President, the collective territory under the official jurisdiction of the states of Iraq and Syria was immersed in the most catastrophic warfare on the Planet at the time. War crimes and acts of genocide have been committed by all sides of this armed conflict.
That devastating war had been initiated by the US Government in the first place [via the US invasion and war in Iraq (during the Bush II Admin.) and the US arming of Sunni Syrian rebel forces (during the Obama Admin.)]. [More info: Section 3 (Crimes of Aggression): US-Led Invasion and Occupation of Iraq)]
These US policies helped lead to the rise of the Sunni ultra-extremist militant organization IS(IS) and the development of a generalized Sunni – Shia civil war throughout the collective territory known as Iraq and Syria.
In the continuation of a US-led Coalition military campaign against IS(IS) [a military campaign which had already killed thousands of noncombatant civilians (2014-2017) (source)], the Trump Administration escalated the US aerial bombardment throughout the collective territory of Iraq and Syria.
During his campaign for the 2016 presidential elections, when asked about his plan for winning the “‘war on terrorism” during an interview with Fox & Friends in December 2015 campaign, Donald Trump openly advocated massacring the families of IS(IS) militants, in violation of the Geneva Conventions and all international law regarding the targeting of noncombatants during war. (source, New York Mag., 6 Aug. 2018; more info: source, Al-Jazeera, 1 July 2017)
Trump said: “When you get these terrorists, you have to take out their families! They care about their lives, don’t kid yourselves. They say they don’t care about their lives. But you have to take out their families.” At a debate a few days later, he further explained his view on why targeting families of militants would be a useful war strategy: “[The IS(IS) militants] may not care much about their lives, but they do care, believe it or not, about their families’ lives.” (source, New York Mag., 6 Aug. 2018)
“Donald Trump as commander-in-chief of US armed forces is
deliberately, decidedly, purposefully, targeting Muslim civilians.”
When Donald Trump became Commander-in-Chief of the USA, the 26th US Secretary of Defense (2017-), James N. Mattis, and other officials started calling the US military campaign against IS(IS) a “war of annihilation”. In other words: a campaign of US genocide (criteria a, b) in this predominantly-Muslim populated region of the Planet. [This new genocide is in addition to the great acts of genocide already committed by the US Military throughout the territory of Iraq under previous US administrations (note, as prime example: the US mass destruction of Fallujah, 2004).]
According to Airwars (which monitors and accesses civilian harm from international military action throughout the collective territory of Iraq, Syria, and Libya): During the first year of the Trump Admin. (2017), US-led Coalition airstrikes throughout the collective territory of Iraq and Syria killed between about 4,000 and 6,000 civilians. (source, New York Mag., 6 Apr. 2018; more info: source, Conversation, 13 Oct. 2017)
Even in densely packed cities, the US Military under the Trump Admin. has been massacring men, women, and children with many huge 500 lb. (a. 230 kg.) bombs. (“US Air Wars Under Trump…”, Guardian, 23 Jan. 2018)
More information about war crimes by the Trump Admin.: source1, Al-Jazeera, 1 July 2017; source2, Conversation, 13 Oct. 2017; source3, Intercept, 23 Feb. 2018; source4, Washington Post, 18 Mar. 2018
US MILITARY BOMBING OF A MOSQUE COMPOUND IN AL-JINAH, SYRIA (16 March 2017):
On 16 March 2017, the US Military struck a mosque compound with two 500-pound guided bombs while about 300 people were gathering in preparation for evening prayers. This first bombing was followed up with at least two “Hellfire missile” strikes from a US drone, targeting people who were running out of the mosque compound.
According to the Syria Civil Defense (SCD; better known as the “White Helmets”; a search and rescue group operating in opposition-held territories): 38 dead bodies, including the bodies of five children, were recovered from the rubble. (Jsource5)
According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) (a UK-based information office whose stated aim is to document human rights abuses in the territory of Syria): The final death toll was at least 49 people killed (mostly civilians) (Jsource3) and the injury toll was more than 100 people injured (Jsource2).
Sources (for Al-Jinah Mosque Bombing): Jsource1, Wikipedia; Jsource2, Guardian, 17 Mar. 2017; Jsource3, Reuters, 17 Mar. 2017; Jsource4, Human Rights Watch, 18 Apr. 2017; Jsource5, Bellingcat, 18 Apr. 2017; Jsource6, Intercept, 19 Apr. 2017
Below video (approx. 7 minutes), 17 Apr. 2017:
An architectural analysis, by Forensic Architecture, of the 16 March 2017 US Military airstrike at a mosque compound in Al-Jinah, Syria
THE MASS DESTRUCTION OF THE SYRIAN CITY OF RAQQA BY THE U.S.A.
In 2017, the Syrian city of Raqqa [Syria’s 6th largest city prior to its destruction that year, with a pre-destruction civilian population of about 300,000 (source)] was turned into a nearly completely-destroyed ghost town by indiscriminate aerial bombardment of the US Air Force acting under orders of US President Donald Trump and US Secretary of Defense James Mattis.
“The coalition, almost all US planes, dropped 20,000 bombs on Raqqa. By the end of the five-month campaign, 80% of the city was declared uninhabitable by the UN, and 1,800 civilians are thought to have been killed. Airwars estimates 1,400 of those deaths were caused by US-led air and artillery bombardment.” (“US Air Wars Under Trump…”, Guardian, 23 Jan. 2018)
“In August , US forces dropped 5,775 bombs and missiles onto the city. For context, this represented 10 times more munitions than the US used for the whole of Afghanistan in the same month and year… At least 433 civilians likely died in Raqqa due to the August bombings…’‘ (source, Conversation, 13 Oct. 2017)
According to UN estimates, more than 169,000 civilian residents of Raqqa and surrounding areas fled their homes during April-May 2017 as initial US bombardments began. They became internally displaced within the war-ravaged land as war refugees living in overcrowded and underresourced camps. (source1, Hurriyet Daily News, 14 June 2017; source2, Al-Jazeera, 14 June 2017)
Below video (1 minute): Shows the mass destruction of the city of Raqqa following the US-led aerial bombardment and invasion; report by EuroNews, published on 22 October 2017
Below video (approx. 6 minutes):
A commentary by Kyle Kulinski (the host of Secular Talk,
a politically progressive internet talk show)
Published on 27 March 2017
“’…Take out their families.’ [quoting Donald Trump] That is taking out their families! He’s doing exactly that!… Violence against civilians for a political purpose. Isn’t there a term for that?
[Yes: “Genocide” (criteria a, b)]… This is state terrorism…
This is your government…”
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